الجمعة، 21 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News


Breastfeeding may expose infants to toxic chemicals

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 03:59 PM PDT

A widely used class of industrial chemicals linked with cancer and interference with immune function -- perfluorinated alkylate substances, or PFASs -- appears to build up in infants by 20-30 percent for each month they're breastfed, according to a new study. It is the first study to show the extent to which PFASs are transferred to babies through breast milk, and to quantify their levels over time.

Anxiety in the workplace can lead to lower job performance

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 11:48 AM PDT

The effect of workplace anxiety on job performance is closely connected to the quality of relationships between employees, their bosses and their co-workers, according to a new study.

School vacations and humidity linked to multiple waves of influenza in Mexico during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 11:48 AM PDT

Scientists studying the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic have found that the inconsistent regional timing of pandemic waves in Mexico was the result of interactions between school breaks and regional variations in humidity.

Unique genes in Khoe-San people may lower risk of some pregnancy hazards

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 11:47 AM PDT

An unusual mutation in an immune system gene switches a receptor from one target molecule to another in Khoe-San people. It's the first known example of such a change, say researchers, and likely leads to safer pregnancies. The Khoe-San -- known for the unusual clicking sounds in their language -- harbor unusually high genetic diversity, about 10 times more among their 100,000 people than among modern Europeans.

Paradigm shift in multidrug resistance

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

Using a Trojan horse strategy, bacteria that respond to antibiotics in lab tests can become highly resistant in the body. This strategy may explain why antibiotics are ineffective in some patients despite lab tests that predict otherwise.

E-cigarette use linked to cough reflex sensitivity

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 10:47 AM PDT

The popularity of electronic cigarettes has steadily increased worldwide, but little is known about their effects on health. New research suggests that the single use of an electronic cigarette approximating the nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette reduces the sensitivity of the cough reflex.

Cellphone data can track infectious diseases

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 10:47 AM PDT

Tracking mobile phone data is often associated with privacy issues, but these vast datasets could be the key to understanding how infectious diseases are spread seasonally, according to a study.

Structure of tumor-suppressing protein identified

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 10:47 AM PDT

The structure of an important tumor suppressing protein, PTEN, has been identified by an international group of researchers. Their findings provide new insights into how the protein regulates cell growth and how mutations in the gene that encodes the protein can lead to cancer.

Extracorporeal life support is 'bridge-to-life' for patients with sudden onset cardiogenic shock

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 10:01 AM PDT

The ideal management strategy for primary cardiogenic shock is a matter of debate. After some early discouraging experiences, the use of extracorporeal life support for patients with cardiogenic shock is having a resurgence. A report finds that patients who have an acute onset of cardiogenic shock, for example following a heart attack, and are placed on extracorporeal life support, fare better than those who have a chronic cardiac pathology.

Life in 3D: How variations in our molecular make-up are controlled within our DNA

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 10:01 AM PDT

New light has been shed on how the variations in our molecular make-up, such as gene expression, are controlled within our DNA. The research leads to a greater understanding of how certain genetic variants can 'switch' on or off the regulatory elements which control the expression of genes and ultimately the manifestation of an individual's characteristics and disease predispositions.

Afatinib: Added benefit in certain mutations confirmed

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

In advanced non-small cell lung cancer, the new tyrosine-kinase inhibitor is more effective than combination chemotherapy in patients with certain mutations, reviewers report.

AGA proposes alternate pathway to recertification

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:57 AM PDT

Frustrated by a maintenance of certification process that doesn't improve patient care, the American Gastroenterological Association this week released a proposed alternate pathway to recertification that is based on established learning theory. It eliminates the high-stakes examination and replaces it with active, adaptive, self-directed learning modules that allow for continuous feedback.

Multiple strains of C. difficile cause severe patient outcomes

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:57 AM PDT

No single genetic strain of the widespread Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) bacteria appears to be any more harmful than other strains, according to new research.

Study examines breast cancer mortality after ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosis

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:57 AM PDT

Researchers estimate the 20-year breast cancer-specific death rate for women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ to be 3.3 percent, although the death rate is higher for women diagnosed before age 35 and for black women, according to an article

Ramelteon may be useful for sleep problems after TBI

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Researchers found preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of ramelteon for the treatment of sleep disturbances after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ramelteon is a melatonin-agonist without the risks for dependence or addiction. Although it is approved for long-term treatment of insomnia, ramelteon had not been studied in this population.

Potential biomarker for pre-diabetes discovered

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a potential biomarker for pre-diabetes. They made the connection by analyzing blood samples taken from 40 participants enrolled in the diaBEAT-it program, a long-term study.

Causal connection found between genotypes, years of education achieved

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

A first-of-its-kind, nationally representative study of siblings in the United States finds that, within families, an adolescent with a higher 'polygenic score' -- which summarizes previously identified genome-wide associations for educational attainment -- than her or his sibling tended to go on to complete more years of schooling.

FIC proteins send bacteria into hibernation

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

Bacteria do not cease to amaze us with their survival strategies. A research has now discovered how bacteria enter a sleep mode using a so-called FIC toxin. In a new article, the scientists describe the mechanism of action and also explain why their discovery provides new insights into the evolution of pathogens.

Uninsured Texans are twice as likely to delay seeking primary care, mental health care, report shows

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

Texans without health insurance are twice as likely to skip seeking primary and mental health care because of cost, find investigators.

Brief postnatal blindness triggers long-lasting reorganization in the brain

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

A brief period of postnatal visual deprivation, when early in life, drives a rewiring of the brain areas involved in visual processing, even if the visual restoration is completed well before the baby reaches one year of age, researchers reveal.

The human genome: A complex orchestra

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

A team of geneticists has discovered that genetic variation has the potential to affect the state of the genome at many, seemingly separated, positions and thus modulate gene activity, much like a conductor directing the performers of a musical ensemble to play in harmony.

Study provides hope for some human stem cell therapies

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

An international team of scientists has discovered that an important class of stem cells known as human 'induced pluripotent stem cells,' or iPSCs, which are derived from an individual's own cells, can be differentiated into various types of functional cells with different fates of immune rejection.

Bacteria evolve differences within the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

Treatments for the same opportunistic bacteria found in cystic fibrosis patients can work in one area in the lung and be less effective in others. The reason, researchers report, is that bacteria become isolated from one another and evolve region-specific traits. Researchers saw differences in bacterial nutritional requirements, host defenses, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that other chronic infections may yield similar bacterial diversity.

Altering daily light-dark cycles affects fertility in middle-aged female mice

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

The fertility cycle in mammalian females becomes more irregular during the transition to menopause. The aging of the circadian clock may be a main driver of this change, argues a study that found that fertility in middle-aged mice could be improved or reduced according to differences in the light-dark cycle, whereas younger mice were unaffected.

Scientists uncover surprising mechanism behind antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 07:52 AM PDT

The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus develops resistance to the antibiotic arylomycin by "switching on" a previously uncharacterized set of genes, explaining why antibiotic resistance rates in some bacteria are higher than in others, scientists say.

Lighting up cancer cells to identify low concentrations of diseased cells

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 07:52 AM PDT

Researchers have developed tiny nanocrystals that could be used in the next generation of medical imaging technologies to light up cancer cells.

Study finds association between people who have had a traumatic brain injury, ADHD

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 07:52 AM PDT

A new study has found a 'significant association' between adults who have suffered a traumatic brain injury at some point in their lives and who also have attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

Home births save money, are safe, study suggests

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 07:52 AM PDT

Having a baby at home can save thousands of dollars over a hospital birth and is just as safe for low-risk births, according to a new study. These findings follow earlier research that demonstrated that planned home births resulted in fewer interventions and similar rates of adverse newborn outcomes compared to planned hospital births among women who met the criteria for home births.

Sepsis therapeutic device improved by researchers

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 07:52 AM PDT

An improved spleen-mimicking device has been developed that synergizes with conventional antibiotic therapies and that has been streamlined for near-term translation to the clinic.

New method of closing the incision during scoliosis surgery nearly eliminates infections

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:55 AM PDT

Patients with scoliosis who undergo surgery may be less likely to develop an infection or other complications after the procedure when a novel wound closure technique is utilized, according to new study.

Scientists warn of pharmaceutical peril for aquatic organisms in urban rivers

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:55 AM PDT

Researchers studied areas along rural and urban parts of the Alafia River, in Hillsborough County, near Tampa, Florida. They found 17 pharmaceuticals. But they say these types of chemicals are not confined to the Alafia River or urban-area rivers in Florida.

Home-based treatment is cost-effective alternative for heart patients

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:54 AM PDT

Post-discharge disease management provided in their own homes could be a cost-effective alternative for recently-hospitalized elderly patients with chronic heart failure, suggest researchers after a recent economic evaluation using data from a randomized controlled trial.

Nanoscopic pores used to investigate protein structure

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:07 AM PDT

Researchers have made strides toward a new method of gene sequencing a strand of DNA's bases are read as they are threaded through a nanoscopic hole. In a new study, they have shown that this technique can also be applied to proteins as way to learn more about their structure.

iPS cells discover drug target for muscle disease

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:25 AM PDT

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is disease that leads to the degeneration of muscle due to dysfunctional expression of the protein dystrophin. A new iPS cell model found that the early stages of DMD development can be attributed to a specific family of ion channels that allows an abnormal influx of calcium to enter the cell. This same model can be used for drug discovery to correct the channel behavior, experts say.

Engineered hot fat implants reduce weight gain in mice

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:25 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a novel way to engineer the growth and expansion of energy-burning 'good' fat, and then found that this fat helped reduce weight gain and lower blood glucose levels in mice.

How newts can help osteoarthritis patients

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:23 AM PDT

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease worldwide. Now, scientists have taken a leaf out of nature's book in an attempt to develop effective stem cell treatment for osteoarthritis, a condition which affects millions of people in the UK alone.

Don’t let the bedbugs bite

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

The number of bedbug infestations across the United States has risen over the past several years, and that's bad news for travelers. Fortunately, there are precautionary measures that everyone can take to avoid bringing unwanted guests into their home.

The first steps of sun protection: How to keep your baby safe

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

According to new research, some parents are not taking the proper steps to protect their infants from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays.

Fewer moles may mean more aggressive melanoma

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

According to new research, those with fewer moles may be diagnosed with more aggressive melanoma than those with many moles.

Research links psoriasis, depression

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

New research indicates that psoriasis patients may have an increased risk of depression.

What's causing that rash?

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

Allergic contact dermatitis is a rash that occurs after the skin comes into contact with an allergen. The substance causing the reaction may be unclear in some cases, but a dermatologist can identify the source of the problem.

Dermatologists identify procedures that may not be necessary

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

Dermatologists have released new recommendations regarding dermatologic tests and treatments that are not always necessary.

Activity trackers not as accurate for some activities

Posted: 19 Aug 2015 02:24 PM PDT

Activity trackers can provide a good overall estimate of calories burned, but a new study finds they're less accurate when measuring certain activities, such as strength training.