الأربعاء، 26 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News


'Fountain of youth' protein points to possible human health benefit

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:07 PM PDT

Individuals previously diagnosed with heart disease may be less likely to experience heart failure, heart attacks, or stroke, or to die from these events, if they have higher blood levels of two very closely related proteins, according to a new study.

Study validates monkey model of visual perception

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:05 PM PDT

A new study shows that humans and rhesus monkeys have very similar abilities in recognizing objects "at a glance," validating the use of this animal model in the study of human visual perception. In the study humans and monkeys not only demonstrated similar ease in recognizing objects in varied positions and landscapes, but both species also tended to make the same errors.

Paramedic care delivered on-scene for 10-35 minutes leads to better outcomes

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:01 PM PDT

In the largest paediatric cardiac arrest study to date, a team of researchers found that survival was the highest, especially among teens, with 10 to 35 minutes on the scene in the care and under the treatment of paramedics. The study also found that improved survival was associated with intravenous access and fluid administration, whereas advanced airway attempts and resuscitation drugs were not.

Many parents unaware of e-cigarette dangers to children

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:00 PM PDT

Many parents and guardians who use e-cigarettes are not aware of the dangers they pose to children, according to a new study.

Quitting smoking after heart attack gives quick boost to mental health, quality of life

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:00 PM PDT

A new study shows that quitting smoking after a heart attack has immediate benefits, including less chest pain, better quality of daily life and improved mental health. Many of these improvements became apparent as little as one month after quitting and are more pronounced after one year, according to the research.

Batting practice in the genome

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:59 PM PDT

In the biochemical game of genetics, it was thought that the proteins controlling gene regulation in animals were either spectators or players. But scientists have now found that spectator proteins are actually practicing up for the big game.

Developing a new tool to detect a frequently missed sex chromosome disorder in boys

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:59 PM PDT

Klinefelter syndrome is the most common disorder of the male sex chromosomes, yet is rarely diagnosed in children. A new assessment tool is being developed to help pediatricians detect the physical traits of the syndrome.

Experimental post-exposure antiviral treatment may protect humans from Ebola virus

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:59 PM PDT

For the first time, physicians have demonstrated that antiviral-based therapies have the potential to protect humans from the deadly Ebola virus. The report describes a case-series of eight British health-care workers who were evacuated to the Royal Free Hospital in London, UK after possible accidental exposure to Ebola virus in Sierra Leone between January and March 2015.

Longer colonoscopies linked to lower cancer rate

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 12:58 PM PDT

Research by a Veterans Affairs team has confirmed that longer-lasting colonoscopies -- those with a longer 'withdrawal time' -- are associated with lower cancer rates.

Adverse effects of common prostate enlargement and hair growth drugs

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 12:58 PM PDT

Twenty-five percent of men currently taking Finasteride or Dutasteride, popularly known as Proscar and Avodart, for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement, appear not to benefit from taking these medications. Those prescribed Propecia or Avodart for male pattern hair loss (known as alopecia) are also at risk for adverse events elicited by these drugs.

Adaptive mutation mechanism may explain some forms of antibiotic resistance

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 11:39 AM PDT

Evolutionary theory says mutations are blind and occur randomly. But in the phenomenon of adaptive mutation, cells can peek under the blindfold, increasing their mutation rate in response to stress. Scientists have observed that an apparent 'back channel' for genetic information called retromutagenesis can encourage adaptive mutation to take place in bacteria.

Less may be more in slowing cholera epidemics

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 11:39 AM PDT

An oral cholera vaccine that is in short supply could treat more people and save more lives in crisis situations, if one dose were dispensed instead of the recommended two, new research suggests.

Genetic study finds association between reduced vitamin D and multiple sclerosis risk

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 11:39 AM PDT

Genetic findings support observational evidence that lower vitamin D levels are associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis, according to a new research article.

Opioid receptor gene variations associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome severity

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 11:13 AM PDT

A new study indicates that variations in opioid receptor genes are associated with more severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in newborn babies. The findings could help lead to the development of individualized treatment plans tailored to each infants' risk of requiring medication to curb their NAS symptoms, which could help improve these patients' outcomes and reduce how long some stay in the hospital.

Glitter from silver lights up Alzheimer's dark secrets

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 11:13 AM PDT

Scientists have caught a glimpse of the elusive toxic form of the Alzheimer's molecule, during its attempt to bore into the outer covering of a cell decoy, using a new method involving laser light and fat-coated silver nano-particles.

Promising target for new drugs found in pancreatic cancer cells

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

Pancreatic cancer is extremely deadly and often has a poor prognosis. Researchers are on a mission to develop drugs that will allow physicians to prolong patient survival and, possibly, even eradicate this deadliest of cancers.

Predicting who will murder his wife or his family

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

Murderers who kill intimate partners and family members have a significantly different psychological and forensic profile from murderers who kill people they don't know, reports a new study. The new knowledge about murderers who commit spontaneous domestic homicide -- emotionally driven crimes -- could enable early intervention to prevent the homicide. One-third of all women murdered in U.S. are killed by male partners.

Mental visual imaging training improves multiple sclerosis patients' well-being

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), the most common form of the disease, often have deficits in two neuropsychological functions, autobiographical memory (AM) and episodic future thinking (EFT), which impact quality of life. Researchers now report that training RR-MS patients in mental visual imagery can improve AM/EFT functioning.

Disabilities: Playing adaptive sports linked to higher employment, economic impact

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

A new study finds playing an adaptive sport can have dramatic results on the athlete and the economy.

Injectable cryogel-based whole-cell cancer vaccines

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

New research could potentially yield a new platform for cancer vaccines. Leveraging a biologically inspired sponge-like gel called 'cryogel' as an injectable biomaterial, the vaccine delivers patient-specific tumor cells together with immune-stimulating biomolecules to enhance the body's attack against cancer.

School lunch study: Visual proof kids are tossing mandated fruits and veggies in trash

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 09:58 AM PDT

Less than a month before Congress votes on whether to reauthorize a controversial program mandating healthier school lunches, a new study confirms the suspicions of school officials -- many students are putting the fruits and vegetables they're now required to take straight into the trash, consuming fewer than they did before the law took effect.

Ebola virus can survive in wastewater

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:50 AM PDT

The latest discovery by a group of microbial risk-assessment and virology researchers suggests that the procedures for disposal of Ebola-contaminated liquid waste might underestimate the virus' ability to survive in wastewater.

Delay in administration of adrenaline and survival for children with cardiac arrest

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:50 AM PDT

Among children with in-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial nonshockable heart rhythm who received epinephrine (adrenaline), delay in administration of epinephrine was associated with a decreased chance of 24-hour survival and survival to hospital discharge.

Effect of physical activity on cognition

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:50 AM PDT

Researchers evaluated whether a 24-month physical activity program would result in better cognitive function, lower risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, or both, compared with a health education program.

Relapse, poor survival in leukemia linked to genetic mutations that persist in remission

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:12 AM PDT

For patients with an often-deadly form of leukemia, new research suggests that lingering cancer-related mutations -- detected after initial treatment with chemotherapy -- are associated with an increased risk of relapse and poor survival. Using genetic profiling to study bone marrow samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), researchers found that those whose cells still carried mutations 30 days after the initiation of chemotherapy were about three times more likely to relapse and die than patients whose bone marrow was cleared of these mutations.

No benefit of omega-3 supplements for cognitive decline, study shows

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:12 AM PDT

While some research suggests that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids can protect brain health, a large clinical trial found that omega-3 supplements did not slow cognitive decline in older persons. With 4,000 patients followed over a five-year period, the study is one of the largest and longest of its kind.

Pregnancy is a missed opportunity for HIV-infected women to gain control over condition

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

Pregnancy could be a turning point for HIV-infected women, when they have the opportunity to manage their infection, prevent transmission to their new baby and enter a long-term pattern of maintenance of HIV care after giving birth --- but most HIV-infected women aren't getting that chance.

'Lazy eye' may bully the brain into altering its wiring

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

As the brain develops its preference for the dominant eye's input, it alters its connections to the weaker eye, according to a new study.

Smart phone not a smart choice when facing depression

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

Depressed people who turn to their smart phones for relief may only be making things worse. A team of researchers found that people who substitute electronic interaction for the real-life human kind find little if any satisfaction.

Hepatitis A-like virus identified in seals

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. The finding provides new clues on the emergence of hepatitis A.

Flu remedies help combat E. coli bacteria

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 07:31 AM PDT

If the intestinal bacteria level becomes unbalanced, it can cause diseases. Physiologists now reveal how a specific carbohydrate in the intestinal mucosa heavily multiplies certain E. coli bacteria and thus causes inflammations. These could be treated with flu remedies, which opens up new therapeutic possibilities.

Patients with abnormally fast heart rhythms to benefit from modification of treatment

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 07:31 AM PDT

New research shows that a modification to the Valsalva maneuver, used to treat people with an abnormally high heart rate, can increase its effectiveness by more than a quarter.

Lemon juice disinfects against human norovirus

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 07:31 AM PDT

Citric acid may prevent the highly contagious norovirus from infecting humans, scientists discovered. Therefore, lemon juice could be a potentially safe and practical disinfectant against the most common pathogen of severe gastrointestinal infections.

Women undergoing fertility treatment can succeed with fewer hormones

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 07:31 AM PDT

New research provides hope that women undergoing fertility treatment can avoid unpleasant hormonal gel by having their own body produce pregnancy hormones.

Cashiers may have higher risk for BPA exposure than general population from handling printed receipts

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:50 AM PDT

The use of Bisphenol A (BPA) in plastic has been on the decline amid growing concerns that the compound's estrogen-mimicking properties may cause dangerous hormonal disruptions. Despite the reduction, BPA remains a ubiquitous substance, found in thousands of products. Cashiers who frequently handle thermal printed receipts may be exposed to higher levels of BPA than the general population. For the first time, researchers are studying this workforce segment to measure how their exposure may differ from that of the general population.

Keep your dogs out of warm lakes: Pythiosis risk

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:50 AM PDT

Animals, including dogs and horses, can contract pythiosis from swimming spores. About 10 cases of humans getting sick from this disease have also been reported in the U.S.

Young black women have a higher frequency of BRCA mutations than previously reported

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:50 AM PDT

Researchers recently conducted the largest U.S. based study of BRCA mutation frequency in young black women diagnosed with breast cancer at or below age 50 and discovered they have a much higher BRCA mutation frequency than that previously reported among young white women with breast cancer.

Links between inflammation and colon cancer metastasis

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 06:49 AM PDT

A new research study has identified for the first time the details of how inflammation triggers colon cancer cells to spread to other organs, or metastasize.

Focused electrical blasts significantly increase survival for patients with pancreatic cancer

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:39 AM PDT

Use of irreversible electroporation (IRE) doubles the survival time for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer say researchers.

DNA: Keeping the cellular production line on track

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:39 AM PDT

When our cells copy their DNA to grow and replicate, it's vital the process runs smoothly. To get this right, cells use a complex "machine", made from many hundreds of components.

Is incense bad for your health?

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:38 AM PDT

The burning of incense might need to come with a health warning. This follows the first study evaluating the health risks associated with its indoor use. The effects of incense and cigarette smoke were also compared, and made for some surprising results.

Gut feeling restored by growth outside the body

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

University of Manchester scientists have bridged a gap between two separate pieces of small intestine kept alive outside the body, in an advance which could have implications for surgery in human adults and babies.

Structural Discoveries Could Aid in Better Drug Design

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

Scientists have uncovered the structural details of how some proteins interact to turn two different signals into a single integrated output. These new findings could aid future drug design by giving scientists an edge in fine tuning the signal between these partnered proteins -- and the drug's course of action.

Measuring macular pigment offers potential as a biomarker of cognitive health

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

Researchers are investigating the potential link between cognitive function and levels of a vital eye pigment linked to diet. The study suggests that measuring macular pigment offers potential as a biomarker of cognitive health.

Microbiomes of human throat may be linked to schizophrenia

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:36 AM PDT

In the most comprehensive study to date, researchers have identified a potential link between microbes (viruses, bacteria and fungi) in the throat and schizophrenia. This link may offer a way to identify causes and develop treatments of the disease and lead to new diagnostic tests.

Fertility concerns impact breast cancer treatment decisions

Posted: 24 Aug 2015 06:19 PM PDT

Concerns about fertility kept a third of young women with breast cancer from taking tamoxifen, despite its known benefit in reducing the risk of breast cancer coming back.