الأربعاء، 12 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Trans fats, but not saturated fats like butter, linked to greater risk of early death and heart disease

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 06:55 PM PDT

Contrary to prevailing dietary advice, a recent evidence review found no excess cardiovascular risk associated with intake of saturated fat. In contrast, research suggests that industrial trans fats may increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

Fiber-like light emitting diodes for wearable displays

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 03:29 PM PDT

A research team has developed fiber-like light emitting diodes, applicable to wearable displays.

Study details 'rotten egg' gas' role in autoimmune disease

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 02:15 PM PDT

A new study has demonstrated how regulatory T cells can themselves be regulated, by an unexpected source: hydrogen sulfide, a gas produced by the body's muscle cells and one often associated with the smell of rotten eggs.

Deceptive woodpecker uses mimicry to avoid competition

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 02:15 PM PDT

Birds of a feather may flock together, but that doesn't mean they share a genetic background. Though birds were first classified into groups primarily based on appearance, research demonstrates that this method isn't necessarily accurate: in a group of very similar-looking South American woodpecker species, genetic analysis has now shown one to be only a distant cousin of the others, in an intriguing case of visual mimicry.

Radiation costs vary among Medicare patients with cancer

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 02:15 PM PDT

Cost of radiation therapy among Medicare patients varied most widely because of factors unrelated to a patient or that person's cancer, report researchers. Up to two-thirds of patients with cancer receive radiation therapy. Researchers focused on breast, prostate and lung cancers because they represent the most common malignancies treated with radiotherapy.

Study shifts understanding of how bone fractures heal

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 02:15 PM PDT

Fibrin, a protein that was thought to play a key role in fracture healing, is not required, a team of researchers has discovered. Instead, the breakdown of fibrin is essential for fracture repair. The findings shift understanding of how fractures heal and have implications for efforts to promote fracture repair.

Receptors in brain linked to schizophrenia, autism

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 02:14 PM PDT

Mice lacking a set of receptors in one type of neuron in the brain developed compulsive, anti-social behaviors, scientists have found. The importance of the receptor, called mGluR5, in other areas of the brain had been previously established. Until now, however, no one had studied their specific role in a cell type known as parvalbumin-positive interneurons, thought to be important in general cognition and generating certain types of oscillatory wave patterns in the brain.

Hundred-fold improvement in temperature mapping reveals the stresses inside tiny transistors

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 01:04 PM PDT

Used in everything from cell phones to supercomputers, tiny electronic circuits contain transistors that generate performance-compromising heat. Circuit designers can "see" how temperatures change inside the circuits.

Nanoscale building blocks and DNA 'glue' help shape 3D architectures

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 01:04 PM PDT

Scientists devised a new way of assembling ordered crystals made of nanoparticles. In this process, nanoparticles in the shape of cubes, octahedrons, and spheres coordinate with each other to build structures. The shapes are bound together by complementary DNA molecules on each type of particle.

Service robot classifies, smooths and folds clothes

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 01:01 PM PDT

Researchers have created a prototype laundry-helper robot that is able to separate, stretch, smooth wrinkles and fold clothes.

Discovery in growing graphene nanoribbons could enable faster, more efficient electronics

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 01:01 PM PDT

Graphene, an atom-thick material with extraordinary properties, is a promising candidate for the next generation of dramatically faster, more energy-efficient electronics. However, scientists have struggled to fabricate the material into ultra-narrow strips, called nanoribbons, that could enable the use of graphene in high-performance semiconductor electronics. Now engineers have discovered a way to grow graphene nanoribbons with desirable semiconducting properties directly on a conventional germanium semiconductor wafer.

Sport TV exposing children to thousands of alcohol-advertisements per year

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 01:01 PM PDT

New research shows that children are being exposed to thousands of alcohol adverts when watching sport TV, questioning the effectiveness of advertising regulations designed to protect children.

New simple proteins play active role in cellular function

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 11:03 AM PDT

Scientists have developed simple new proteins almost devoid of chemical diversity that still play a surprisingly active and specific role in cellular function, causing cells to act like cancer cells.

Could flu someday be prevented without a vaccine?

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 11:03 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a way to trigger a preventive response to a flu infection without any help from the usual players – the virus itself or interferon, a powerful infection fighter. The finding suggests that manipulating a natural process could someday be an alternative way to not just reduce flu severity, but prevent infection.

Using online health forums to serve underserved communities

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 11:03 AM PDT

Researchers believe that results from their recently published paper on how people use social media and online health forums can help reach underserved communities and prevent the spread of misinformation.

Melting glaciers feed Antarctic food chain

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 11:03 AM PDT

Nutrient-rich water from melting Antarctic glaciers nourishes the ocean food chain, creating feeding 'hot spots' in large gaps in the sea ice, according to a new study.

Finding a fingerprint for an invasive cancer still in hiding

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:30 AM PDT

A new study of a biomarker that can identify DCIS patients who are not at risk for subsequent invasion could save many lives and keep women from having to go through medical and surgical therapy, investigators say.

Quantum quarry: Scientists unveil new technique for spotting quantum dots to make high performance nanophotonic devices

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:30 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a new technique for finding quantum dots. A quantum dot should produce one and only one photon -- the smallest constituent of light -- each time it is energized, and this characteristic makes it attractive for use in various quantum technologies, such as secure communications. However, the trick is in finding them.

Early surgery for mitral regurgitation, before clinical triggers emerge, has best outcomes

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:29 AM PDT

Patients with mitral regurgitation face a dilemma of whether to undergo corrective surgery early, when they might have no or few symptoms, or wait until their condition worsens. Current guidelines allow for watchful waiting until certain symptoms appear that would then "trigger" the decision to proceed with surgery. The authors argue that these guidelines are based on relatively weak class C evidence from clinical experience that is now 20 to 30 years old, and surgical methods, including mitral valve repair instead of valve replacement, have now made surgeries safer with good long-term outcomes, especially when performed at high-quality, high-volume centers. The results of a study indicate that delaying surgery until clinical triggers appear leads to increased mortality and congestive heart failure.

Research advances potential for test and vaccine for genital and oral herpes

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

Findings from a pair of new studies could speed up the development of a universally accurate diagnostic test for human herpes simplex viruses, according to researchers. The work may also lead to the development of a vaccine that protects against the virus.

New tools for predicting arrival, impact of solar storms

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

When the sun hurls a billion tons of high-energy particles and magnetic fields into space at speeds of more than a million miles per hour and the 'space weather' conditions are right, the resulting geomagnetic storm at Earth can wreak havoc on communication and navigation systems, electrical power grids, and pose radiation hazards to astronauts and airline passengers and crew.

Skeletal muscle atrophy in congestive heart failure

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

Patients with advanced congestive heart failure lose skeletal muscle mass, but their heart muscles become enlarged to provide the body with an adequate supply of blood and oxygen. It has been known that the protein angiotensin II plays a villainous role in this process. Now, researchers have elucidated the process and identified new therapeutic targets.

Behaviors linked to adult crime differ between abused boys and girls, study finds

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

Troubling behaviors exhibited by abused children can predict later criminal activity, and those indicators differ between boys and girls, new research shows. Elementary-aged boys who show "externalizing" behaviors such as arguing, disobedience and fighting are more likely to commit crimes as adults, but girls who similarly acted out were not, the study demonstrated.

Research priorities for Antarctic and Southern Ocean science

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:28 AM PDT

An initiative to better understand how melting ice sheets will contribute to sea-level rise, efforts to decode the genomes of organisms to understand evolutionary adaptations, and a next-generation cosmic microwave background experiment to address fundamental questions about the origin of the universe are the top research goals for Antarctic and Southern Ocean science recommended in a new report.

Cutting costs: Sustainability matters even in complex networks

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Every day, we expend energy when we con­trol the net­works in our lives. For example, to drive our car, we utilize a net­work whose com­po­nents include the car's accel­er­ator, steering wheel, and brake. Knowing how much that effort "costs" can help deter­mine which com­po­nents to manipulate--and to what degree--to ensure the smoothest, safest ride as you acclerate from 55 to 90 miles per hour. Physicists now reveal a measuring device that could guide scientists in controlling real-world complex systems.

CMR induced in pure lanthanum manganite

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Colossal magnetoresistance is a property with practical applications in a wide array of electronic tools including magnetic sensors and magnetic RAM. New research successfully used high-pressure conditions to induce colossal magnetoresistance for the first time in a pure sample of a compound called lanthanum manganite, LaMnO3.

SIV shrugs off antibodies in vaccinated monkeys

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Experimental vaccines can protect a majority of monkeys from repeated challenge with SIV. But when the virus does get through, it's not clear whether vaccine-induced antibodies were exerting any pressure on the virus.

Scientists study nitrogen provision for Pluto's atmosphere

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Data from the NASA New Horizons Mission hint that Pluto may still be geologically active, a theory that could explain how Pluto's escaping atmosphere remains flush with nitrogen.

Linguist explains secret language of Gulliver's Travels

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

A linguist is proposing a solution to a centuries-old puzzle: What sparked the 'nonsense' language in 'Gulliver's Travels'? Authors of a new report now say that the mystery words are, in fact, variations of Hebrew.

Experts suggest upgrades to current heart disease prevention guideline

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Acknowledging key strengths and 'lessons learned,' experts suggest upgrades to current heart disease prevention guidelines. The recommendations are designed, the authors say, to improve subsequent guidelines and clarify key points of confusion related to risk prediction and treatment of heart attacks and strokes.

Furthering data analysis of next-generation sequencing to facilitate research

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

A user-friendly, integrated platform for analyzing the transcriptomic and epigenomic 'big data' has been developed by researchers. The scientists say that the new platform -- called BioWardrobe -- could help biomedical researchers answer questions about both basic biology and disease.

Single interrupted pregnancy may impact later deliveries, new research finds

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:25 AM PDT

Even a single incident of abortion or miscarriage can have repercussions for subsequent pregnancies, researchers say. The study suggests that women who have experienced a single pregnancy loss are about 30 percent more likely to suffer complications in subsequent pregnancies than women who have never miscarried or had a single abortion.

Engineered bacterium produces 1,3-diaminopropane, an important industrial chemical

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:22 AM PDT

1,3-Diaminopropane is a three carbon diamine, which has a wide range of industrial applications including epoxy resin and cross-linking agents, as well as precursors for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and organic chemicals. For the first time, the production of 1,3-diaminopropane via fermentation of an engineered E. coli bacterium has been demonstrated by a team of scientists.

Study finds low rate of dialysis facility referral for kidney transplantation evaluation

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 10:22 AM PDT

Only about one in four patients with end-stage renal disease in Georgia were referred for kidney transplant evaluation within one year of starting dialysis between 2005 and 2011, although there was substantial variability in referral among dialysis facilities, according to a study.

More strategic culling needed to reduce lionfish invasion, researchers find

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:34 AM PDT

Current efforts to reduce lionfish populations aren't enough - much more must be done, experts report. Their computer models combine ocean currents and biological traits of lionfish to predict their spread. Lionfish have shown they can take over -- and in some cases devastate -- a coral reef ecosystem as they do not have any natural predators in the waters of the United States and the Caribbean. The research is showing that lionfish are spreading as all of our waters are connected by ocean currents.

New clues found to vision loss in macular degeneration

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:34 AM PDT

Scientists have identified a pathway that leads to the formation of atypical blood vessels that can cause blindness in people with age-related macular degeneration. The research sheds light on one of the leading causes of blindness in industrialized countries and offers potential targets for treating the disease.

Device may detect urinary tract infections faster

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:34 AM PDT

A new Lab-on-a-Disc platform combines modern microfluidic techniques with fast optical diagnostics to dramatically cut the time to detect bacterial species that cause urinary tract infections -- a major cause of sepsis -- from 24 hours to within 70 minutes.

How human cells can dissolve damaging protein aggregates

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:33 AM PDT

Cellular repair systems can dissolve aggregated proteins and now researchers have successfully decoded the fundamental mechanism that is key to dissolving these protein aggregates in human cells. Their in-vitro experiments uncovered a multi-stage biochemical process in which protein molecules are dissolved from the aggregates.

Droplets levitate on a cushion of blue light

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:33 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a new way to levitate liquid droplets, which surprisingly also creates a mini light show, with the droplet sparking as it floats above a faint blue glowing gap. The floating effect is similar to Leidenfrost levitation -- in which droplets dance on a hot vapor cushion. But by creating the vapor with a strong jolt of electricity instead of heat, the researchers found they could ionize the gas into a plasma that glowed a soft blue light. The work may offer an inexpensive new way to generate a freely movable microplasma, as well as yield insights into fundamental physics questions.

Researchers develop fast test for invasive carp

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:32 AM PDT

A field test that quickly determines whether Asian grass carp, a threat to the Great Lakes, are sterile or can reproduce has been developed by scientists. Ohio and neighboring states prohibit sale of fertile grass carp but they have been found in a river feeding into Lake Erie. Scientists worry that reproducing fish could destroy food supplies and habitat essential to native species in the Great Lakes.

Chitin of insects, crustaceans found to be active against pathogenic microorganisms

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:32 AM PDT

Chitin of insects and crustaceans has been found to be active against pathogenic microorganisms, scientists report. The study specifically concentrated on chitosan extracted from chitin in the carapaces of insects and crustaceans.

Paving the way for a faster quantum computer

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:32 AM PDT

Physicists have demonstrated a new quantum computation scheme in which operations occur without a well-defined order. The researchers used this effect to accomplish a task more efficiently than a standard quantum computer. Moreover, these ideas could set the basis for a new form of quantum computing, potentially providing quantum computers with an even larger computational speed-up.

Insulin degludec plus liraglutide: No hint of added benefit in type 2 diabetes

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:31 AM PDT

Review of Insulin degludec plus liraglutide as a medical therapy provided no hint of added benefit in type 2 diabetes due to lack of suitable studies.

Vortioxetine in depression: No hint of added benefit

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 08:31 AM PDT

A review of the drug Vortioxetine has concluded that there is no suitable data for acute treatment or for relapse prevention. The evidence was only partly considered for the indirect comparison with citalopram.

Study examines top high school students' stress, coping mechanisms

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:37 AM PDT

There is growing awareness that many subgroups of youth experience high levels of chronic stress, to the extent it impedes their abilities to succeed academically, compromises their mental health functioning, and fosters risk behavior. Furthermore, this chronic stress appears to persist into the college years, and researchers warns it may contribute to academic disengagement and mental health problems among emerging adults.

Bringing the Tasmanian devil back to mainland Australia would restore ecosystem health

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Australian researchers have conducted the first study assessing the ecological impact of returning Tasmanian devils to mainland Australia, as a way to replace culled dingoes as apex predators.

Research pours cold water on ice bath recovery theory

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

If the thought of a post workout ice bath is enough to make you shiver, new research will warm your heart. The comprehensive study found cold water immersion after strength training hindered muscle adaptation -- pouring cold water on the long-held theory that an ice bath helps speed up recovery.

Smart light, shadows used to track human posture

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

The first light-sensing system that reconstructs human postures continuously and unobtrusively has been developed by scientists, furthering efforts to create smart spaces in which people control their environment with simple gestures.

Trust me: Research sheds light on why people trust

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Trust matters whether it's love, money or another part of our everyday lives that requires risk, and a new study sheds light on what motivates people to make that leap of faith.

'Brain signature' that predicts human emotions discovered

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a way to predict human emotions based on brain activity. The study is unusual because of its accuracy -- more than 90 percent -- and the large number of participants who reflect the general adult population rather than just college students. The findings could help in diagnosing and treating a range of mental and physical health conditions.

Prevention methods for dog bites too simplistic, researchers find

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Educating pet owners about canine body language may not be the answer to preventing dog bites as originally thought, new research suggests. Experts have argued that dog bites are preventable if owners are properly educated on how to read canine behaviour and identify high risk situations. Until now, however, the effectiveness of this theory has not been evaluated in any great depth.

New breath test shows possible biomarker for early-stage liver disease diagnosis

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:35 AM PDT

A natural compound called limonene, which is found in oranges and lemons, could be indicative in early-stage diagnosis of liver disease, according to new research. Patients with this illness do not often present with symptoms until the disease is advanced. Even then diagnosis is difficult and the symptoms and signs are often general and can be mistaken for other pathologies. For advanced cirrhosis liver, transplant is the only treatment.

Chickenpox vaccination does increase shingles cases, but mainly in young adults

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:35 AM PDT

Re-exposure to chickenpox virus boosts immunity to shingles for a tenth of the time previously thought. So although vaccination increases shingles cases in 31-40 year olds, in the longer term the benefits outweigh the risks, scientists conclude.

Controlling feral animals, plants will save unique species, billions of dollars

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:35 AM PDT

Feral animals and pest plants threaten many Australian species in the Lake Eyre Basin, the world's largest internally draining lake system in central Australia. A three-year study has prioritized the strategies for pest control to save the area's unique and endangered species and in the process lift agricultural productivity by 10 percent.

Loss of altruism (and a body plan) without a loss of genes

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:35 AM PDT

The evolutionary loss of the 'altruistic' worker caste in ants is not accompanied by a loss of genes, an international team of researchers has found. The results reported in this new research add to a growing body of literature suggesting that many traits may evolve by tweaks in the regulation of pre-existing genes and networks. Phenotype gain and loss may be facilitated by changes in the environment within and outside of the organism, not necessarily requiring changes to protein coding genes, just changes to when and how they are used.

Statistical model helps police identify crime series; speeds apprehension of perpetrators

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 07:35 AM PDT

A statistical model -- now an easy-to-use software tool -- local police can use to identify a series of related crimes and nab a suspect has been unveiled. Crime linkage is the investigative process of identifying a crime series--a group of crimes committed by the same person or group of people. The goal of the crime linkage model and resulting software is to help crime analysts more quickly and easily sift through massive amounts of crime data to accurately discover patterns that could indicate a crime series such as one of the most difficult crimes to solve: burglaries.

The short-baseline detectives and the mysterious case of the sterile neutrino

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 06:21 AM PDT

Scientists from more than 45 institutions around the world have teamed up to design a program to catch the hypothetical fourth neutrino in the act. The program, called the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program, makes use of a trio of detectors positioned along one of Fermilab's neutrino beams.

New combination treatment effective against melanoma skin metastases

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 06:21 AM PDT

In findings never before seen in melanoma, a novel combination therapy was found to be highly effective at treating patients with skin metastases, new research shows.

Common class of 'channel blocking' drugs may find a role in cancer therapy

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 06:21 AM PDT

Drugs called ion channel blockers, which are commonly used to treat cardiac, neurological, and psychiatric disorders, might prove useful in cancer therapy, according to research findings in fruit flies and mice by scientists that led to unconventional treatment of a case of metastatic brain cancer.

One technique therapists use that really helps depressed patients

Posted: 11 Aug 2015 06:21 AM PDT

Some depressed patients may be hoping for answers from their therapists, but a new study suggests questions may be the key. The study is the first to show that depressed patients see substantial improvements in their depressive symptoms when their therapists use a technique called "Socratic questioning."