الاثنين، 31 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Ants to the rescue: How super-organisms could become super pest controllers

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

As global population rises and finite resources dwindle, farmers need new, more sustainable ways to control pests. Now, ecologists have found a safe, sustainable and cost-effective new pest control. But rather than a high-tech compound or genetic technology, it's a tiny, low-tech organism: the ant.

Testosterone changes brain structures in female-to-male transsexuals

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

Brain imaging shows that testosterone therapy given as part of sex reassignment changes the brain structures and the pathway associated with speech and verbal fluency. This result supports research that women in general may deal with speech and interaction differently than men.

Food may be addictive: Food craving may be 'hard-wired' in the brain

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

An international group of researchers have found that food craving activates different brain networks between obese and normal weight patients. This indicates that the tendency to want food may be 'hard-wired' into the brain of overweight patients, becoming a functional brain biomarker.

Clinical trial shows first treatment for ‘emotional flatness’ associated with schizophrenia

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

Results of a clinical trial seem to show the first effective treatment for the negative symptoms – withdrawal, lack of emotion, and apathy – associated with schizophrenia.

Psychotic patients distinguished from controls while watching movie Alice in Wonderland

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

Researchers using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have found that even first-episode psychotic patients process information differently from a control group. To ensure both groups experienced the same brain stimuli, the measurements were taken while the subjects watched a movie, Tim Burton's Alice in Wonderland.

Knee and Hip Replacements May Be Bad for the Heart

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 09:11 PM PDT

Contrary to recent reports, researchers found that osteoarthritis patients who had total knee or hip joint replacement surgery, known as arthroplasty, were at increased risk of heart attack (myocardial infarction) in the early post-operative period. However, findings indicate that long-term risk of heart attack did not persist, while the risk for venous thromboembolism -- blood clot in veins and lungs -- remained years after the procedure.

A single cocaine dose lowers perceptions of sadness and anger

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:26 PM PDT

A single dose of cocaine can interfere with the ability to recognize negative emotions such as anger and sadness, according to new research.

Scientists show how magnetic pulses change the brain in treatment for depressed patients

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:26 PM PDT

A group of scientists have found a way of understanding how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can give relief to severely depressed patients. TMS is used as an alternative to electro-convulsive therapy, but it is not known how it achieves its therapeutic effect. Understanding how it works may open the door to better, more targeted treatment for depression and other conditions.

How can we prevent suicide? Major study shows risk factors associated with depression

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:26 PM PDT

A major multi-national study of suicides has identified the behavior patterns which precede many suicide attempts. This may lead to changes in clinical practice in the care of patients affected with depression, as it shows the clinical factors which confer major risk of suicide attempts.

Discarded electronics mismanaged within Europe equals about 10 times the volume of e-waste exported

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:25 PM PDT

Mismanagement of discarded electronics within Europe involves a volume 10 times that of e-waste shipped to foreign shores in undocumented exports, according to a comprehensive two-year investigation into the functioning of the used and waste electronics market.

Treating left atrial appendage could dampen long standing persistent atrial fibrillation

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:03 PM PDT

In patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) despite standard treatment, additional electrical isolation of an area called the left atrial appendage (LAA) can improve freedom from AF without increasing complications, results of the BELIEF study show.

Rapid, more sensitive test speeds up chest pain triage

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:03 PM PDT

Patients arriving at the emergency department with chest pain suggestive of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be triaged more quickly and more safely using a new rapid assay with refined cut-offs, research suggests.

Surprise cardiac finding predicts future risk

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:02 PM PDT

In patients with chronic ischemic heart disease, a small left ventricle with thick walls, is the strongest predictor of morphologic remodelling, which is generally considered a first step towards heart failure, according to unexpected findings.

Leadless pacemaker study assesses safety and efficacy

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:02 PM PDT

A leadless cardiac pacemaker showed "good safety and reliable function" during the initial six months of follow-up in the LEADLESS II study, investigators reported.

Cold weather linked to increased stroke risk in atrial fibrillation patients

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:02 PM PDT

Cold weather is associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, according to new research. The study in nearly 290,000 patients suggests that cool climate may be an underrated issue for health that deserves more attention.

Recruitment of leukocytes is a hallmark of stent thrombosis

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:02 PM PDT

Recruitment of leukocytes is a hallmark of stent thrombosis, according to new results. The findings suggest that immune cell mediated thrombotic processes may be a realistic target for novel therapies to prevent stent thrombosis.

Cold weather associated with higher risk of severe heart attack

Posted: 30 Aug 2015 12:02 PM PDT

Cold weather is associated with a higher risk of severe heart attack, according to new research. The six year study found that each 10°C drop in temperature was associated with a 7% increased risk of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the most severe form of heart attack.

Refractory cardiac arrest patients brought to hospital with ongoing CPR can recover

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:37 AM PDT

Refractory cardiac arrest patients brought to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can survive with good brain function, according to research in nearly 4,000 patients.

Pollution and weather influence outcomes after heart attack

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:37 AM PDT

Pollution and weather influence outcomes after a heart attack, according to new research.

Prolonged television watchers have higher risk of fatal pulmonary embolism

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:37 AM PDT

Prolonged television watchers have a higher risk of fatal pulmonary embolism, a condition associated with long haul flights, reveals research.

Coffee linked with increased cardiovascular risk in young adults with mild hypertension

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:37 AM PDT

Coffee drinking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (mainly heart attacks) in young adults (18-45) with mild hypertension.The 12-year study in more than 1,200 patients found that heavy coffee drinkers had a four-fold increased risk while moderate drinkers tripled their risk.

Midday naps associated with reduced blood pressure and fewer medications

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

Midday naps are associated with reduced blood pressure levels and prescription of fewer antihypertensive medications, according to new research.

Depression and extremes of blood pressure predict highest rates of harmful vascular events

Posted: 29 Aug 2015 09:36 AM PDT

Depressive symptoms and extremes of blood pressure predict the highest rates of harmful vascular events in patients with existing heart disease, diabetes or stroke, according to new research.

Surface plasmons move at nearly the speed of light and travel farther than expected, possibly leading to faster electronic circuits

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:31 AM PDT

Light waves trapped on a metal's surface travel farther than expected. While the distance might seem quite small, it is far enough to possibly be useful in ultra-fast electronic circuits.

Combustion’s Mysterious 'QOOH' Radicals Exposed

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:30 AM PDT

Good news for those interested in accurately modeling combustion engines, scientists can now discriminate between previously unidentified radicals found in the early stages of the combustion process from similar compounds.

New 'Tissue Velcro' could help repair damaged hearts

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:29 AM PDT

Engineers have just made assembling functional heart tissue as easy as fastening your shoes. The team has created a biocompatible scaffold that allows sheets of beating heart cells to snap together just like Velcro.

Better signs could help reduce friction between motorists, bicyclists

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:29 AM PDT

A survey shows 'Bicycles May Use Full Lane' signs are better at communicating bicyclists' right to use the roadway.

Beyond royal jelly: Study identifies plant chemical that determines a honey bee's caste

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:29 AM PDT

A closer look at how honey bee colonies determine which larvae will serve as workers and which will become queens reveals that a plant chemical, p-coumaric acid, plays a key role in the bees' developmental fate.

The importance of hydration

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:54 AM PDT

In all organisms, water's pH has a profound effect. Because the interaction of carbon dioxide and water explains the natural acidity of water and all accompanying reactions, it is considered a vital reaction by scientists. Researchers recently made a discovery about how dissolved dioxide bonds.

One in a million: Analyzing metabolites in a single cell

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:54 AM PDT

With detection limits down to the zeptomolar range (about 600 molecules in a sample), a new technology can analyze the metabolic composition of individual microbial cells, as well as detect the presence of extremely low levels of environmental contaminants.

Capturing and converting carbon dioxide in a single step

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:53 AM PDT

Turning carbon dioxide from certain power plants into a more valuable chemical would reduce emissions while creating a revenue return. Scientists have now derived a metal-free catalyst that does the trick without the need for expensive, extreme conditions.

Imitating viruses to deliver drugs to cells

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:52 AM PDT

Viruses are able to redirect the functioning of cells in order to infect them. Inspired by their mode of action, scientists have designed a "chemical virus" that can cross the double lipid layer that surrounds cells, and then disintegrate in the intracellular medium in order to release active compounds. To achieve this, the team used two polymers they had designed, which notably can self-assemble or dissociate, depending on the conditions.