الأربعاء، 2 سبتمبر 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News


Completely paralyzed man voluntarily moves his legs, scientists report

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 05:48 PM PDT

A 39-year-old man who had had been completely paralyzed for four years was able to voluntarily control his leg muscles and take thousands of steps in a robotic device during five days of training with the aid of the robotic device combined with a novel noninvasive spinal stimulation pattern that does not require surgery, a team of scientists reports.

Economic security requires new measures of well-being

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 05:48 PM PDT

Economic well-being for low-income families in the US is often determined by federal measures that establish basic requirements for essentials such as food, shelter and clothing, but a new study suggests that such a definition is unrealistically narrow.

New technology transforms cell phone into high-powered microscope

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 03:59 PM PDT

New technology that transforms a cell phone into a powerful, mobile microscope could significantly improve malaria diagnoses and treatment in developing countries that often lack the resources to address the life-threatening disease, says a biomedical engineer who has created the tool.

Study identifies potential genes associated with most common form of liver damage

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 01:12 PM PDT

In a first-of-its-kind exploratory study, researchers identified a potential gene associated with the initiation of the most common cause of liver damage. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver damage. In this study, the scientists sequenced microRNAs from liver biopsies, spelling out their biochemical molecules to identify several potential gene targets associated with NAFLD-related liver damage.

Studying the outliers: Researchers discover a gene variant that provides a delaying mechanism for Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:07 AM PDT

Medical research has yet to discover an Alzheimer's treatment that effectively slows the disease's progression, but neuroscientists may have uncovered a mechanism by which onset can be delayed by as much as 10 years.

New treatment strategy identified for tumors associated with diabetes

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:02 AM PDT

If you have diabetes and cancer, here's some hope. In a new research report, scientists reveal a newly discovered tissue- and organ-specific mechanism that regulates blood vessel growth, and when inhibited reduced the growth of tumors in diabetic mice.

Vitamin A implicated in development of alcoholic liver disease

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:01 AM PDT

With a name like 'Alcoholic Liver Disease,' you may not think about vitamin A as being part of the problem. That's exactly what scientists have shown, however, in a new research report.

Police at risk of traffic injuries in stopped cars, as well as when speeding, study finds

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:01 AM PDT

Vehicle crashes are the largest cause of death among police in the United States, but what conditions contribute to the risk faced by officers? The first quantitative study of the issue finds a few surprises, including that police face an elevated risk of being injured in a collision when they are sitting in a stationary car, just as well as when they are responding to an emergency call with their siren blaring.

Forgiving others protects women from depression, but not men

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 10:51 AM PDT

Researchers studied how different facets of forgiveness affected aging adults' feelings of depression. The researchers found older women who forgave others were less likely to report depressive symptoms regardless of whether they felt unforgiven by others. Older men, however, reported the highest levels of depression when they both forgave others and felt unforgiven by others. The researchers say their results may help counselors of older adults develop gender-appropriate interventions since men and women process forgiveness differently.

Hysterectomy can be safely combined with cosmetic surgery for 'hanging abdomen'

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 10:51 AM PDT

For women undergoing hysterectomy, removal of 'hanging' abdominal fat and skin -- a cosmetic procedure called panniculectomy -- can be performed at the same surgery without increasing the risk of complications, reports a study.

Another way urate may protect against Parkinson's disease

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 10:49 AM PDT

A study from members of the research team investigating whether increasing blood levels of the antioxidant urate can slow the progression of Parkinson's disease has found that the neuroprotective effects of urate extend beyond its own antioxidant properties. An NIH-funded phase 3 trial of a urate-elevating drug, led by the senior author of the current study, will begin enrolling patients next year.

Statin side effects linked to off-target reaction in muscle mitochondria

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 10:49 AM PDT

Statins are a popular and easy-to-swallow option for people looking to lower their cholesterol. But for a quarter of patients, statins come with muscle pain, stiffness, cramps, or weakness without any clear signs of muscle damage. These symptoms may affect daily activities so much that people stop using the drugs. Researchers show, in mice and humans, that statins yield an off-target reaction that disrupts muscle mitochondria function, possibly causing the side-effects.

Brazilian wasp venom kills cancer cells by opening them up

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 10:49 AM PDT

The social wasp Polybia paulista protects itself against predators by producing venom known to contain a powerful cancer-fighting ingredient. A new study reveals exactly how the venom's toxin -- called MP1 (Polybia-MP1) -- selectively kills cancer cells without harming normal cells. MP1 interacts with lipids that are abnormally distributed on the surface of cancer cells, creating gaping holes that allow molecules crucial for cell function to leak out.

Big differences in U.S. healthcare costs for fixing back pain

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:10 AM PDT

How much does spinal fusion surgery cost? The answer depends on what part of the country you live in, reports a study. The researchers analyzed 2012 Medicare data on the costs of two common types of spinal fusion surgery: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). These two operations are widely performed in patients with patients with pain and/or instability in the upper (ACDF) and lower (PLF) spine.

Increase seen in bicycle-related injuries, hospital admissions in United States

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Between 1998 and 2013, there was a large increase in bicycle-related injuries and hospital admissions of adults in the United States, with the increase in injuries driven by more injuries among adults older than 45 years of age, according to a study.

Medication improves measure of kidney disease in patients with diabetes

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:09 AM PDT

Among patients with diabetes and kidney disease, most receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker, the addition of the medication finerenone compared with placebo resulted in improvement in albuminuria (the presence of excessive protein [chiefly albumin] in the urine), according to a study.

DNA division can slow to a halt

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:08 AM PDT

A key mystery of the DNA replication process has been unraveled by researchers, resolving a long-standing mystery that has clouded our understanding of DNA replication, and also has important implications for all domains of life.

Genetic cause of unknown disease uncovered

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:08 AM PDT

The genetic cause of a previously undescribed disease has been discovered by researchers. With this, they have solved an over ten year old medical conundrum. Using modern high-tech methods, followed by thorough clinical, biochemical and molecular biological investigations, the researchers found the causative mutation and characterized the disease which is given the name RCDP5.

Central sleep apnea device increases mortality in heart failure

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:52 AM PDT

Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy increases mortality and should not be used to treat central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction, the SERVE-HF trial shows.

Simply turn off a virus: Scientists develop new method for detailed investigation of functional RNA elements

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:48 AM PDT

A new method has been developed for studying the function of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that provides more detailed results, is more cost-effective, as well as easier to work with than previous methods. So-called functional RNA is important for almost all cells and cellular processes, for example, by binding proteins or performing catalytic processes.

Lupus: A disease with many faces

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:37 AM PDT

Lupus is an autoimmune disease with so many different symptoms that it is often difficult to diagnose and to treat. Despite huge medical advances over the last few years, lupus is incurable. Modern, individually tailored therapeutic approaches are aimed at helping sufferers.

Inntags: New tools for innocuous protein tagging

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:37 AM PDT

A new method for protein tagging has been revealed that preserves protein native functions and structure. The study proposes the use of two plant protein epitopes, named inntags, as the most innocuous and stable tagging tools in the study of physical and functional interactions of proteins.

Suicide-by-firearm rates shift in two states after changes in state gun laws

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:35 AM PDT

A new study examining changes in gun policy in two states finds that handgun purchaser licensing requirements influence suicide rates. Researchers estimate that Connecticut's 1995 law requiring individuals to obtain a permit or license to purchase a handgun after passing a background check was associated with a 15.4 percent reduction in firearm suicide rates, while Missouri's repeal of its handgun purchaser licensing law in 2007 was associated with a 16.1 percent increase in firearm suicide rates.

Can marijuanna help transplant patients? New research says maybe

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:35 AM PDT

Here's another discovery to bolster the case for medical marijuana: new research in mice suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, may delay the rejection of incompatible organs.

Accuracy of dementia brain imaging must improve

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:35 AM PDT

MRI scans and other tools to detect and diagnose dementia are helpful but not definitive. A new report evaluates how well different types of brain imaging tests work to detect Alzheimer's and predict how the disease will progress.The results show that the accuracy of brain imaging must be improved before it can be rolled out on a scale that could be useful to healthcare providers and patients.

How does an insecticide treated bed net actually work?

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:34 AM PDT

Scientists developed infrared video tracking technology that follows individual mosquitoes in flight as they try to reach a human sleeper inside a bed net.

Timing of sleep just as important as quantity

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:34 AM PDT

The timing of an animal's sleep can be just as important as how much sleeps it gets, researchers have discovered.

Why do certain hormonal contraceptives increase the risk of HIV?

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:34 AM PDT

In recent years, evidence has been building that injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera or DMPA) is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. Now a study provides a biological explanation for the phenomenon.

Treatment with life-saving drugs increases but still suboptimal in ischemic heart disease

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 08:34 AM PDT

Treatment with life-saving medications has increased over the past 10 years in ischemic heart disease but levels are still suboptimal, according to the first results a new study. Statin prescriptions markedly increased from 48 percent to 67 percent before admission and reached 93 percent at discharge.

Possible new weapon against PTSD

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 07:05 AM PDT

Animals who underwent chronic stress prior to a traumatic experience engaged a distinctive brain pathway that encodes traumatic memories more strongly than in unstressed animals, new research shows.

Which blood thinner works better during stent placement? It's still a toss-up

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 07:03 AM PDT

A large, ambitious contrast of blood-thinning medications used during cardiac stent placement suggests that a very expensive drug offers no clear safety benefits over a much more affordable option, according to a researcher and cardiologist.

Redefining pediatric malnutrition to improve treatment

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 07:03 AM PDT

The new definition of pediatric malnutrition has been reviewed by experts, identifying populations where the new guidelines can be problematic in clinical practice. The review also describes the implementation of a malnutrition identification program within a large tertiary care children's hospital.

Modified CAR T cells can preferentially target cancer cells, spare normal cells

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:55 AM PDT

Engineering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to lower their affinity for the protein epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) made the cells preferentially recognize and eliminate tumor cells that have high amounts of EGFR while sparing normal cells that have lower amounts of the protein, according to a preclinical study.

Newly engineered CAR T cells can better discriminate between cancer and normal cells

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:55 AM PDT

A new development in engineering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, called affinity tuning, can make the CAR T cells spare normal cells and better recognize and attack cancer cells, which may help lower the toxicity associated with this type of immunotherapy when used against solid tumors, according to a preclinical study.

'Bacterial litmus test' provides inexpensive measurement of micronutrients

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:53 AM PDT

A bacterium engineered to produce different pigments in response to varying levels of a micronutrient in blood samples could give health officials an inexpensive way to detect nutritional deficiencies in resource-limited areas of the world.

Daily marijuana use among U.S. college students highest since 1980

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:53 AM PDT

Daily marijuana use among the nation's college students is on the rise, surpassing daily cigarette smoking for the first time in 2014.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Is Safe, Effective for Very Elderly Patients

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:53 AM PDT

Select patients age 90 years and older with aortic stenosis (AS) can benefit from a relatively new, minimally invasive surgery for aortic valve replacement, new research suggests.

Statistical model may identify patients most likely to benefit from surgery for mesothelioma

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:53 AM PDT

A new statistical model may help predict which patients are most likely to receive life-extending benefits from surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma, scientists say.

Injection drug use limits benefits of surgery for treatment of heart lining infection

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:53 AM PDT

Injection drug users who undergo surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) have a significantly higher risk of reoperation or death between 3 and 6 months after surgery compared to patients who develop endocarditis who are not IV drug abusers.

Patient perception a key element in preventing falls in hospitals

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:45 AM PDT

Hospitalized patients deemed at risk for falls may not follow prevention strategies depending on their perceptions of personal risk, according to a study. An inpatient survey about fall-related attitudes included the patients' ratings of their confidence to act without falling and their degree of concern about falling.

Diabetic retinopathy screening for children with type 1 diabetes should start at later stage, new study says

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:44 AM PDT

A new study has found that the occurrence of advanced forms of a diabetic eye disease remains low among children living with diabetes, regardless of how long they have had the disease or their ability to keep blood sugar levels controlled. Researchers are therefore recommending that most children with type 1 diabetes delay annual diabetic retinopathy screenings until age 15, or 5 years after their diabetes diagnosis, whichever occurs later.

Organized self-management support eases chronic depression

Posted: 31 Aug 2015 01:38 PM PDT

In a randomized trial, people with chronic or recurrent depression benefited from self-management support that included regular outreach care management and a self-care group with a combined behavioral and recovery-oriented approach. Over 18 months, patients improved significantly in all four measured outcomes. Compared to patients in usual care, they had less severe symptoms and less likelihood of having major depression, higher recovery scores, and higher likelihood of being much improved.

Magnetic stimulation effective in helping Parkinson's patients walk

Posted: 31 Aug 2015 11:02 AM PDT

About 50 percent of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience freezing of gait (FOG), an inability to move forward while walking. This can affect not only mobility but also balance. In a new study, researchers report that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce FOG and improve other motor skills in PD patients.