الخميس، 3 سبتمبر 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

Reward, aversion behaviors activated through same brain pathways

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 04:13 PM PDT

New research may help explain why drug treatments for addiction and depression don't work for some patients. The conditions are linked to reward and aversion responses in the brain. And the research suggests that some treatments simultaneously stimulate reward and aversion responses, resulting in a net zero effect.

Telomerase targeting drug demonstrates benefit in myelofibrosis treatment

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 04:13 PM PDT

Imetelstat, a novel drug that targets telomerase, has demonstrated potential value in treating patients with myelofibrosis, according to the results of a new study.

Neuron responsible for alcoholism found

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 12:56 PM PDT

Scientists have pinpointed a population of neurons in the brain that influences whether one drink leads to two, which could ultimately lead to a cure for alcoholism and other addictions. Their study finds that alcohol consumption alters the structure and function of neurons in the dorsomedial striatum, a part of the brain known to be important in goal-driven behaviors

Feeling blue and seeing blue: Sadness may impair color perception

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 08:20 AM PDT

The world might seem a little grayer than usual when we're down in the dumps and we often talk about 'feeling blue' -- new research suggests that the associations we make between emotion and color go beyond mere metaphor. The results of two studies indicate that feeling sadness may actually change how we perceive color.

Silk bio-ink could help advance tissue engineering with 3-D printers

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 08:18 AM PDT

Advances in 3-D printing have led to new ways to make bone and some other relatively simple body parts that can be implanted in patients. But finding an ideal bio-ink has stalled progress toward printing more complex tissues with versatile functions -- tissues that can be loaded with pharmaceuticals, for example. Now scientists have developed a silk-based ink that could open up new possibilities toward that goal.

New symptom may help identify sleep apnea in older women

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 08:18 AM PDT

Obstructive sleep apnea may be underdiagnosed in postmenopausal women. A new study strongly associates the condition's traditional risk factors with nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting), suggesting that it may be an additional screening factor for doctors to consider.

Blueberry extract could help fight gum disease and reduce antibiotic use

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 07:26 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered that wild blueberry extract could help prevent dental plaque formation.

Exposure to phthalates could be linked to pregnancy loss

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 07:26 AM PDT

A new study of more than 300 women suggests that exposure to certain phthalates -- substances commonly used in food packaging, personal-care and other everyday products -- could be associated with miscarriage, mostly between 5 and 13 weeks of pregnancy.

Spine surgery: Findings could cut costs for osteoporosis patients, facilities

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:35 AM PDT

New findings from an interventional radiology department have shown that a more expensive option isn't necessarily more effective for spine augmentation.

Psychological consequences remain profound in coastal areas of Tohoku

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:33 AM PDT

A second round of aggregate findings from a study has revealed that depressive symptoms continue to be higher in coastal areas than in inland areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunami that followed.

Quick way to determine bacterias' antibiotic resistance

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:33 AM PDT

Bacteria's ability to become resistant to antibiotics is a growing issue in health care: Resistant strains result in prolonged illnesses and higher mortality rates. One way to combat this is to determine bacteria's antibiotic resistance in a given patient, but that often takes days -- and time is crucial in treatment. Scientists have developed a technique that can sort antibiotic-resistant from 'susceptible' bacteria, and it happens in a matter of minutes.

How does your microbiome grow?

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:32 AM PDT

The reproduction rates of the bacteria in one's gut may be a good indicator of health or disease, scientists say. In their examination of human microbiome data, the research group found that particular changes in bacterial growth rates are uniquely associated with type II diabetes; others are tied to inflammatory bowel disease, for example.

Bisexual and questioning women have higher risk of eating disorders

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:32 AM PDT

Young women who are attracted to both sexes or who are unsure about who they are attracted to are more likely to develop an eating disorder than those attracted to only one sex, according to a new study.

Risk of cognitive impairment in children born prematurely may be predicted using MRI after birth

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:13 AM PDT

School age children who are born prematurely are more likely to have low mathematical achievement, thought to be associated with reduced working memory and number skills, according to a new study.

Male seahorse and human pregnancies remarkably alike

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 05:29 AM PDT

Their pregnancies are carried by the males but, when it comes to breeding, seahorses have more in common with humans than previously thought, new research reveals.

Cellular recycling complexes may hold key to chemotherapy resistance

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 05:29 AM PDT

Upsetting the balance between protein synthesis, misfolding, and degradation drives cancer and neurodegeneration. Recent cancer treatments take advantage of this knowledge with a class of drugs that block protein degradation, known as proteasome inhibitors. Widespread resistance to these drugs limits their success, but researchers have discovered a potential Achilles heel in resistance. With such understandings researchers may be able to target malignancy broadly, and more effectively.

Flu study, on hold, yields new vaccine technology

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 05:29 AM PDT

Vaccines to protect against an avian influenza pandemic as well as seasonal flu may be mass produced more quickly and efficiently using new technology.

Antipsychotics inappropriately prescribed to people with intellectual disabilities

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 05:48 PM PDT

Large numbers of people with intellectual disabilities in the UK are being inappropriately prescribed antipsychotic drugs, finds a new study. Intellectual disability is a lifelong condition that begins before the age of 18 and is characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning (generally indicated by an IQ under 70) and difficulties with one or more life skills. Around 1 percent of the population has an intellectual disability.

Provision of HIV treatment can be cost-saving for companies in high prevalence settings

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:43 AM PDT

In settings with a high prevalence of HIV, such as South Africa, provision of antiretroviral therapy programs in the workplace can be cost saving for companies due to reductions in healthcare costs, absenteeism, and staff turnover according to new research.

Researchers develop a likely new combo treatment for the deadliest form of brain cancer

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:11 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a potentially promising new combination therapy for glioblastoma, the deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastoma, also known as grade IV glioma, is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. Approximately 23,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) every year.

How anesthesia may fight lung infections: Mouse study

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:11 AM PDT

In experiments in mice, researchers have added to evidence that certain so-called "volatile" anesthetics — commonly used during surgeries — may also possess powerful effects on the immune system that can combat viral and bacterial infections in the lung, including influenza and pneumonia.

Cirrhosis, antibodies increase risk of poor outcome for autoimmune hepatitis patients

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:09 AM PDT

New research reports that cirrhosis at first diagnosis and antibodies for the soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas antigen (SLA/LP) are major risk factors for poor short- and long-term outcome in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Scientists also found that patients diagnosed in childhood were at higher risk of relapse, need of a liver transplant, and reduced life expectancy.

How much liposuction is 'safe'? The answer varies by body weight

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 11:07 AM PDT

What's the 'safe' amount of fat to remove in patients undergoing liposuction? Rather than a hard-and-fast rule, the answer depends on the patient's body mass index (BMI), according to a report.

Genetic landscape can impact treatment for children with rare, aggressive cancer

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 09:09 AM PDT

For children with rare, aggressive and advanced cancer, precision medicine may help doctors determine their best treatment options, a new study finds. Using information from a patient's entire genome helped suggest personalized treatment options for nearly half of children with cancer, and led to specific treatment changes in a quarter of these patients.

Carbonated drinks linked with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin

Posted: 01 Sep 2015 06:55 AM PDT

Carbonated beverages are associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin, according to new results. The study in nearly 800,000 patients suggests that limiting consumption of carbonated beverages may be beneficial for health.