الجمعة، 4 سبتمبر 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News


Study identifies viral product that promotes immune defense against RSV

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:32 PM PDT

Research has found a viral product that promotes a strong immune response against respiratory syncytial virus, a threat to infants and the elderly.

Before nature selects, gene networks steer a course for evolution

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 01:05 PM PDT

Natural selection is a race to reproduce, a competition between individuals with varying traits that helps direct evolution. How do the structures of gene networks determine which individuals appear on the starting line, silently influencing evolution before competition has even begun? Researchers have addressed this question by exploring the gene network that guides limb development in mammals.

Growing up on a farm provides protection against asthma and allergies

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 11:46 AM PDT

Researchers have successfully established a causal relationship between exposure to so-called farm dust and protection against asthma and allergies. This breakthrough discovery is a major step forward towards the development of an asthma vaccine.

New role for an old protein: Cancer causer

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 11:20 AM PDT

A protein known to play a role in transporting the molecular contents of normal cells into and out of various intracellular compartments can also turn such cells cancerous by stimulating a key growth-control pathway.

Making nanowires from protein and DNA

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 11:19 AM PDT

Using computational and experimental methods, researchers have developed a technique for creating so-called protein-DNA nanowires -- a hybrid biomaterial that could have important applications.

Smallest 3-D camera offers brain surgery innovation

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

To operate on the brain, doctors need to see fine details on a small scale. A tiny camera that could produce 3-D images from inside the brain would help surgeons see more intricacies of the tissue they are handling and lead to faster, safer procedures.

New hope for Lou: Unexplored therapeutic targets for ALS

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:20 AM PDT

No cures exist for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the only approved therapy slows the progression by only a few months. A new study identifies a promising unexplored avenue of treatment for ALS, the endothelin system.

Back to school and back to sleep

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:17 AM PDT

Poor sleep might explain how stress impacts health in kids, a new study suggests. Researchers found that getting a good night's sleep might buffer the impact of stress on kids' cortisol level, which is a hormone produced in the adrenal gland to regulate the body's cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems.

Teens lose sleep after change to daylight saving time, study shows

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:17 AM PDT

High school students lose sleep on school nights following the change to daylight saving time that occurs in March, a study has concluded. The loss of sleep during the school week was associated with a decline in vigilance and cognitive function, which raises safety concerns for teen drivers.

Genetic factors drive roles of gut bacteria in diabetes, obesity

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:17 AM PDT

One strain of mice that were genetically prone to become obese became resistant to excess weight gain after their populations of gut microbiota were transformed simply by an sharing an environment with other mice, researchers have discovered.

One step closer to cheaper antivenom

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:17 AM PDT

Researchers involved in an international collaboration across six institutions have successfully identified the exact composition of sea snake venom, which makes the future development of synthetic antivenoms more realistic. Currently, sea snake anitvenom costs nearly USD 2,000, yet these new findings could result in a future production of synthetic antivenoms for as little as USD 10-100.

Acupuncture reduces hot flashes in breast cancer survivors

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:15 AM PDT

Acupuncture may be a viable treatment for women experiencing hot flashes as a result of estrogen-targeting therapies to treat breast cancer, according to a new study. Hot flashes are particularly severe and frequent in breast cancer survivors, but current FDA-approved remedies for these unpleasant episodes, such as hormone replacement therapies are off-limits to breast cancer survivors because they include estrogen.

Targeting newly discovered pathway sensitizes tumors to radiation and chemotherapy

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:15 AM PDT

In some patients, aggressive cancers can become resistant to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. In a new paper, researchers identified a pathway that causes the resistance and a new therapeutic drug that targets this pathway.

Babies benefit from parenting classes even before birth

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:15 AM PDT

A brief series of classes to help first-time parents better support each other through the often stressful transition to parenthood has a positive effect on birth outcomes as well, according to health researchers.

Image-tracking technology helps scientists study nature v. nurture in neural stem cells

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

One of the longstanding debates in science, that has, perhaps unsurprisingly, permeated into the field of stem cell research, is the question of nature versus nurture influencing development. Science on stem cells thus far, has suggested that, as one side of the existential debate holds: their fate is not predestined. But new research suggests that the cells' tabula might not be as rasa as we have been led to believe.

Switch for health heart muscle

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a protein, called Mel18, that regulates the development of heart muscle. Faults in the production of Mel18 in early cardiac cells may play a role in heart defects. The findings could help grow cardiac cells in the laboratory from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS).

Aspirin could hold key to supercharged cancer immunotherapy

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

Giving cancer patients aspirin at the same time as immunotherapy could dramatically boost the effectiveness of the treatment, according to new research. Aspirin is part of a group of molecules called COX inhibitors, which stop the production of PGE2 and help reawaken the immune system. Combining immunotherapy with aspirin or other COX inhibitors substantially slowed bowel and melanoma skin cancer growth in mice, compared to immunotherapy alone, authors say.

Study finds increased risk of MGUS in Vietnam Vets exposed to Agent Orange

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

A study that used stored blood samples from US Air Force personnel who conducted aerial herbicide spray missions of Agent Orange during the Vietnam war found a more than two-fold increased risk of the precursor to multiple myeloma known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), according to an article.

Team decodes structure of protein complex active in DNA repair

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

The multifunctional ubiquitin tweaks the activity of newly made proteins, which can influence DNA damage repair via BRCA1 and anti-inflammatory responses, scientists report. One enzyme in particular, BRCC36, removes a specific type of ubiquitin central to DNA damage repair and inflammation. But BRCC36 doesn't act on its own. It's part of a complex with KIAA0157. How these two work together is finally coming into focus.

Health risks of saturated fats aggravated by immune response

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:14 AM PDT

High levels of saturated fat in the blood could make an individual more prone to inflammation and tissue damage, a new study suggests. The new research shows that the presence of saturated fats resulted in monocytes - a type of white blood cell - migrating into the tissues of vital organs.

Genetic testing all women for breast cancer might not be worth the cost

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 09:19 AM PDT

Women who are carriers of mutated BRCA genes are known to have a significantly higher risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers than those who don't have the mutations. But a new study questions the value of screening for the genetic mutations in the general population—including those who do not have cancer or have no family history of the disease— because of the high cost.

Emotional behavior altered after multiple exposures to anesthesia during infancy

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 09:19 AM PDT

Repeated exposure to anesthesia early in life causes alterations in emotional behavior that may persist long-term, according to a study.

Variations in cell programs control cancer and normal stem cells

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 09:19 AM PDT

In the breast, cancer stem cells and normal stem cells can arise from different cell types and tap into distinct yet related stem cell programs, according to researchers. The differences between these stem cell programs may be significant enough to be exploited by future therapeutics.

Still more blind can be cured

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 09:18 AM PDT

A number of illnesses causing blindness can be cured from transplanting cells from the oral cavity. New findings make the treatment accessible to the places where the condition strikes the most frequently: in developing countries.

Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in remyelination

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:38 AM PDT

Researchers have revealed the molecular mechanism involved in the process of repair to damage of the myelin sheath.This achievement shows that it is possible to encourage the regeneration of the myelin sheath by inhibiting the action of PTPRZ in endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells, indicating a new potential treatment for demyelinating diseases.

Childhood celiac disease discovery opens door for potential treatments

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Childhood celiac disease mirrors the condition in adults, increasing the possibility a celiac disease therapy that could enable patients to eat gluten again will work in children, a new study has revealed.

Novel genes found in inflammatory bowel disease under age five

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Researchers analyzing the complicated genetic influences in inflammatory bowel disease have discovered new gene variants associated with an often-severe type of the disease that affects children under age five. The genes play important roles in immune function, and that knowledge helps guide more precise, individualized treatments for very young patients.

Pollution dispersion in cities improved by trees

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:18 AM PDT

Trees in cities throughout the UK could be significantly improving the quality of the air we breathe by decreasing pollution levels for pedestrians, researchers have revealed.

Do antipsychotic medications affect cortical thinning?

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:17 AM PDT

People diagnosed with schizophrenia critically rely upon treatment with antipsychotic medications to manage their symptoms and help them function at home and in the workplace. But despite their benefits, antipsychotic medications might also have some negative effects on brain structure or function when taken for long periods of time.

Pulses for better posture

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:15 AM PDT

In an effort to find a better treatment for spinal curvature in children and young people, the EU's "StimulAIS" project is focused on electrostimulation of muscles. Scientists worked with partners from industry and research to develop a prototype implant that would do the job.

Gas sensors sound the smoldering fire alarm

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:15 AM PDT

Smoke detectors are everywhere, but still thousands of people die in fires annually. Fire gas detectors, which detect carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, identify fires at an early stage. Thanks to a new measurement principle, these costly sensors will soon be inexpensive and ready for the mass market.

Susceptibility to allergies can be reduced, experts say

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Susceptibility to allergies reduced by increased production of regulatory T cells, researchers report, adding that these new findings could lead to preventive treatments being developed for high risk patients in the future.

Arabs or Jews, children who need pain relief in the ER get it

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:12 AM PDT

Children with broken bones or joint dislocations in northern Israel emergency departments received equal pain treatment, regardless of their ethnicity or the ethnicity of the nurses who treated them, even during a period of armed conflict between the two ethnic groups, an investigation of potential disparities in pediatric emergency department pain relief in northern Israel demonstrates.

Study reveals the genetic start-up of a human embryo

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:12 AM PDT

For the first time, an international team of scientists has mapped all the genes that are activated in the first few days of a fertilized human egg.

Drug for fungal infections in lung transplant recipients increases risk for cancer, death

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:11 AM PDT

Voriconazole, a prescription drug commonly used to treat fungal infections in lung transplant recipients, significantly increases the risk for skin cancer and even death, according to a new study.

Needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV in two years, study suggests

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:11 AM PDT

The District of Columbia's needle exchange program prevented 120 new cases of HIV infection and saved an estimated $44 million over just a two-year period, according to a first-of-a-kind study.

Long-term study links common psychiatric disorders with increased risk of violent reoffending in ex-prisoners

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 06:42 PM PDT

Ex-prisoners with common psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) and alcohol and drug abuse are substantially more likely to commit a violent crime after release than other prisoners, according to new research. The study of almost 48000 ex-prisoners suggests that diagnosed psychiatric disorders are potentially responsible for up to a fifth of violent reoffending by former male prisoners and two-fifths by female ex-prisoners.

First ancient genome recovered from Mediterranean area

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 04:13 PM PDT

An international team of researchers has sequenced the first complete genome of an Iberian farmer, which is also the first ancient genome from the entire Mediterranean area. This new genome allows to know the distinctive genetic changes of Neolithic migration in Southern Europe which led to the abandonment of the hunter-gatherer way of life.

Diabetes and brain tangles may be linked independently of Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 04:13 PM PDT

Diabetes may be linked to the buildup of tangles or tau in the brain, separate from Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study. A new study looked at the relationship between type 2 diabetes, the loss of brain cells and their connections, the levels of beta amyloid (a sticky buildup of plaques) and tau or tangles of protein in the spinal fluid of the participants.

Who gets a transplant organ?

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 01:03 PM PDT

A new study examines how decisions are made when it comes to allocating scare resources. Imagine 12 patients who need new kidneys, and six kidneys available. How would you allocate them? This research suggests that your answer would depend on how the patients and their situations are presented to you.

High-tech vest would protect workers, rescue personnel from highway hazards

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 01:00 PM PDT

Researchers hope to cut roadside dangers by using ever-shrinking radio sensors, GPS tracking, and connected vehicle technology to link highway workers to an alert network.

Scientists discover mechanism for air pollution-induced liver disease

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 12:59 PM PDT

Exposure to air pollution has a direct adverse health effect on the liver and causes liver fibrosis, an illness associated with metabolic disease and liver cancer, scientists report.

Researchers identify a new approach for lowering harmful lipids

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 12:56 PM PDT

A new approach for lowering 'bad' lipids in blood circulation has been identified by researchers, a critical means to combat devastating cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.

Researchers report long-term remissions in first personalized cell therapy trial

Posted: 02 Sep 2015 12:55 PM PDT

Eight of 14 patients in the first trial of a personalized cellular therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) responded to the therapy, with some complete remissions continuing past four and a half years.