السبت، 5 سبتمبر 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News


IV administration of endothelin B receptor drug reduces memory loss, oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 11:46 AM PDT

An estimated 5.3 million people in the U.S. suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The five current FDA-approved AD medications only help mask the disease symptoms instead of treating the underlying disease. In a new study, researchers used IRL-1620, a chemical that binds to endothelin B receptors, to treat AD in rats.

Vitamin C: The exercise replacement?

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 11:46 AM PDT

Exercise improves health in overweight and obese adults but can be hard to incorporate into a daily routine. New findings show that taking vitamin C supplements daily instead can have similar cardiovascular benefits as regular exercise in these adults.

Common antidepressant may change brain differently in depressed and non-depressed people

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 11:44 AM PDT

A commonly prescribed antidepressant may alter brain structures in depressed and non-depressed individuals in very different ways.

Highly effective seasickness treatment on the horizon

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 11:44 AM PDT

The misery of motion sickness could be ended within five to 10 years thanks to a new treatment being developed by scientists.

Researchers show effectiveness of non-surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 09:13 AM PDT

Patients with spinal stenosis experienced good short term benefit, lasting from weeks to months, after receiving epidural steroid injections. These findings contradict a previously published study that found epidural steroid injections were not helpful in spinal stenosis cases.

Vestibular organ: Signal replicas make a flexible sensor

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Researchers have shown how signals from the spinal cord adjust the sensitivity of hair cells in the inner ear to accommodate shifts in head position associated with active locomotion -- thus ensuring that balance is maintained.

Supervised tooth brushing and floride varnish schemes benefit kids and the health economy

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Action to prevent tooth decay in children, such as supervised tooth brushing and fluoride varnish schemes, are not just beneficial to children's oral health but could also result in cost savings for public health systems.

Community ecology can advance the fight against infectious diseases

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 07:53 AM PDT

The ecological complexity of many emerging disease threats -- interactions among multiple hosts, multiple vectors and even multiple parasites -- often complicates efforts aimed at controlling disease. Now, a new paper is advancing a multidisciplinary framework that could provide a better mechanistic understanding of emerging outbreaks.

Adolescents more likely not to smoke when cigarette ads feature older adults

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 05:25 AM PDT

For decades, the tobacco and alcohol industries have been accused of advertising their products to kids. Tremendous public pressure has prompted the implementation of strict guidelines. Today, tobacco and alcohol advertising are among the most highly regulated forms of marketing in existence. But, are all of the rules having any effect on the adolescents we seek to protect?

Current school start times damaging learning and health of students

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 05:25 AM PDT

Scientists have found that current school and university start times are damaging the learning and health of students. Drawing on the latest sleep research, the authors conclude students start times should be 8:30 or later at age 10; 10:00 or later at 16; and 11:00 or later at 18. Implementing these start times should protect students from short sleep duration and chronic sleep deprivation, which are linked to poor learning and health problems.

Inexpensive drug saves blood and money, study shows

Posted: 04 Sep 2015 05:23 AM PDT

Using an inexpensive drug for every hip or knee replacement has helped one hospital reduce its number of red blood cell transfusions performed during these surgeries by more than 40 percent without negatively affecting patients, according to new research.

Rapid testing for TB aims to reduce drug resistance, lower mortality rate

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:43 PM PDT

Researchers have documented the accuracies of three new tests for more rapidly diagnosing drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB), which are much harder and more expensive to treat and which, experts say, represent a major threat to global public health.

Surgery achieves better long-term control of type 2 diabetes than standard therapy

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:32 PM PDT

Metabolic or bariatric surgery may be more effective than standard medical treatments for the long-term control of type 2 diabetes in obese patients, according to a new study. The study is the first to provide data on five-year outcomes of surgery from a randomized clinical trial specifically designed to compare this new approach against standard medical therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Girls, boys with autism differ in behavior, brain structure

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:32 PM PDT

A study of about 800 children with autism found gender differences in a core feature of the disorder, as well as in the youngsters' brain structures. Girls with autism display less repetitive and restricted behavior than boys do, according to the study.

'Unethical' targets in India's private hospitals

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 07:32 PM PDT

Many doctors working in India's private hospitals are under pressure to carry out unnecessary tests and procedures to meet revenue targets, according to a new article.

Increased odds for type 2 diabetes after prenatal exposure to Ukraine famine of 1932-33

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 01:05 PM PDT

Men and women exposed in early gestation to the human-made Ukrainian Famine of 1932-33 in regions with extreme food shortages were 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. There was no diabetes increase among individuals born in regions with no famine. This is the first large-scale study of the relationship between famine severity during different stages of prenatal development and Type 2 diabetes risk.

Drug-resistant bacteria in the gut overcome with fecal transplant

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 11:44 AM PDT

The gut is an important reservoir for drug-resistant bacteria responsible for life-threatening hospital-acquired infections. A study in mice reports that two of the most common antibiotic-resistant bacterial species circulating in hospitals occupy and effectively share the same location in the gut, and that they can be eliminated by fecal transplantation of a healthy gut microbiome.

New strategy to lower blood sugar may help in diabetes treatment?

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 11:20 AM PDT

Working in mice, researchers showed they could reduce glucose production in the liver and lower blood sugar levels. They did so by shutting down a liver protein involved in making glucose, an approach that may help treat type 2 diabetes.

Targeting glucose production in liver may lead to new diabetes therapies

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:17 AM PDT

A biological checkpoint known as the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier is critical for controlling glucose production in the liver and could potentially be a new target for drugs to treat diabetes, new research shows.

New model of cognitive flexibility gives insight into autism spectrum disorder

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:15 AM PDT

Researchers clarify many of the concepts surrounding cognitive flexibility and propose a model of its underlying neural mechanisms. The new model may be instrumental in understanding behavioral and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder.

Finding a way forward in the fight against prion disease

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 10:15 AM PDT

A study has found bile acids may prolong survival in models of prion disease. The study examines the use of two bile acids as possible therapeutic treatments for prion disease. The research found that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) helped slow the progression of the disease if given early in the disease process. The bile acids appear to bind the proteins (prions) that cause disease and prevent them from spreading.

New mechanism discovered behind infant epilepsy

Posted: 03 Sep 2015 05:12 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered a new explanation for severe early infant epilepsy. Mutations in the gene encoding the protein KCC2 can cause the disease, hereby confirming an earlier theory.