الثلاثاء، 8 سبتمبر 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Paper tubes make stiff origami structures

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 04:06 PM PDT

From shipping and construction to outer space, origami could put a folded twist on structural engineering. Researchers have developed a new 'zippered tube' configuration that makes paper structures that are stiff enough to hold weight yet can fold flat for easy shipping and storage.

Did grandmas make people pair up?

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 04:06 PM PDT

If you are in a special relationship with another person, thank grandma -- not just yours, but all grandmothers since humans evolved. The grandma hypothesis holds that the key to why moms can have next babies sooner is not because of dad bringing home the bacon but because of grandma helping feed the weaned children, the authors explain.

'Clever adaptation' allows yeast infection fungus to evade immune system attack

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 04:06 PM PDT

Researchers say they have discovered a new way that the most prevalent disease-causing fungus can thwart immune system attacks, adding that the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infections and the mouth infection thrush, is able to cause a deadly infection once it enters the bloodstream.

'Super Stonehenge': Super circle of stones surround existing monument

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:45 AM PDT

The Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project team has discovered evidence for a row of up to 90 standing stones, some of which may have originally measured up to 4.5 meters in height. Many of these stones have survived because they were pushed over and the massive bank of the later henge raised over the recumbent stones or the pits in which they stood. Hidden for millennia, only the use of cutting edge technologies has allowed archaeologists to reveal their presence without the need for excavation.

Improved stability of electron spins in qubits

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:39 AM PDT

Calculation with electron spins in a quantum computer assumes that the spin states last for a sufficient period of time. Physicists have now demonstrated that electron exchange in quantum dots fundamentally limits the stability of this information. Control of this exchange process paves the way for further progress in the coherence of the fragile quantum states.

Oldest fossil sea turtle discovered: fossilized turtle is at least 120 million years old

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:39 AM PDT

The world's oldest fossil sea turtle known to date has been found by scientists. The fossilized reptile is at least 120 million years old -- which makes it about 25 million years older than the previously known oldest specimen. The almost completely preserved skeleton from the Cretaceous, with a length of nearly 2 meters, shows all of the characteristic traits of modern marine turtles.

Is old rock really 'as solid as a rock'? Deformed craton under North America

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:39 AM PDT

In the course of billions of years continents break up, drift apart, and are pushed back together again. The cores of continents are, however, geologically extremely stable and have survived up to 3.8 billions of years. These cores that are called cratons are the oldest known geological features of our planet. It was assumed that the cratons are stable because of their especially solid structure due to relatively low temperatures compared to the surrounding mantle. Now researchers have discovered that the craton below the North American continent is extremely deformed: its root is shifted relative to the center of the craton by 850 kilometers towards the west-southwest.

Mathematical 'Gingko trees' reveal mutations in single cells that characterize diseases

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:38 AM PDT

A new interactive analysis program called Gingko has been released that reduces the uncertainty of single-cell analysis and provides a simple way to visualize patterns in copy number mutations across populations of cells. Detailed knowledge of CNVs can point to specific treatment regimens.

Molecular bodyguards for immature membrane proteins

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:37 AM PDT

During their formation within the cells, many proteins rely on the assistance of molecular protectors, so-called chaperones. They help the proteins to fold correctly and thus ensure the right final structure. Researchers have now shown how chaperones stabilize an immature bacterial membrane protein and guide it in the right folding direction, thus protecting it from misfolding.

Nanoparticles: Small but unique

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:37 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a new way to study nanoparticles one at a time, and have discovered that individual particles that may seem identical in fact can have very different properties. The results may prove to be important when developing new materials or applications such as hydrogen sensors for fuel cell cars.

Common molecular tool kit shared by organisms across the tree of life

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 08:37 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered the assembly instructions for nearly 1,000 protein complexes shared by most kinds of animals, revealing their deep evolutionary relationships. Those instructions offer a powerful new tool for studying the causes of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and cancer.

A humanoid robot to liaise between space station crews

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:21 AM PDT

A team of researchers has developed "an autobiographical memory" for the robot Nao, which enables it to pass on knowledge learnt from humans to other, less knowledgable humans. This technological progress could notably be used for operations on the International Space Station, where the robot, which is the only permanent member, would liaise between the different crews that change every six months in order to pass on information.

Improving wheat varieties in Kazakhstan

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:14 AM PDT

Wheat farmers in Kazakhstan lose anywhere from from 10 percent to as much as 50 percent of their wheat crop due to tan spot and Septoria leaf blotch. A research scientist will screen new wheat varieties to improve resistance to these common fungal diseases.

Success combating multi-resistant bacteria in stables

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:12 AM PDT

Multi-resistant bacteria represent a major problem not only in hospitals but also in animal husbandry. A study now describes how a farmer successfully eliminated these pathogens entirely from his pig stable. However, the radical hygiene measures taken in this case can only be applied in individual cases. Nevertheless, the work has yielded a number of recommendations – not only for farms but also for hospitals.

Using humor to help toddlers learn

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:12 AM PDT

We all know that laughter is the best medicine, but a team of French scientists has discovered that using humor also appears to help toddlers learn new tasks, reports a new study.

Enzymes from dangerous bacteria become important tools for protein chemistry

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:12 AM PDT

Two enzymes have been identified from the pathogenic Legionella bacteria that are very useful in chemically modifying proteins to be used in medical drugs, scientists report in a new article.

Volunteer black hole hunters as good as the experts

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:11 AM PDT

Trained volunteers are as good as professional astronomers at finding jets shooting from massive black holes and matching them to their host galaxies, research suggests. 

Understanding the world’s oceans more essential than ever to secure the future of our planet

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:11 AM PDT

A greater understanding and appreciation of our oceans is essential for the wellbeing of the world's population, according to a new report. The report looks at the future for: commercial shipping -- without which world trade would cease; for navies – so vital for security; and the health of the oceans – addressing the challenges of pollution, climate change and exploitation of resources.

Shedding light on the era of Dark silicon

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:11 AM PDT

We will soon live in an era where perhaps more than 80 per cent of computer processors' transistors must be powered off and 'remain dark' at any time to prevent the chip from overheating. Researchers are now racing against time to find smart solutions to the rapidly advancing era of 'dark silicon'.

Quit-smoking drug not linked to heart disease or depression

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:02 AM PDT

A highly effective drug that helps smokers to quit does not increase their risk of heart attack and depression as was previously thought, research suggests. Researchers who carried out the study say doctors can prescribe varenicline - also known as Champix™ or ChantixTM - more widely to help people stop smoking.

Early warning gene signature for Alzheimer's

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:02 AM PDT

A 'gene signature' that could be used to predict the onset of diseases, such as Alzheimer's, years in advance has been developed by scientists. The study aimed to define a set of genes associated with 'healthy aging' in 65 year olds. Such a molecular profile could be useful for distinguishing people at earlier risk of age-related diseases.

Local anesthetic may affect the development of children's teeth, study shows

Posted: 07 Sep 2015 07:02 AM PDT

For the first time, a study indicates that the use of local anesthetic may affect tooth cell growth and the development of children's teeth. The study comes at a time when more children than ever before are subjected to dental surgery -- and local anaesthetic -- because of tooth decay or the other orthodontic conditions.

Higher risk of death for patients admitted to NHS hospitals at the weekend

Posted: 06 Sep 2015 01:21 PM PDT

Patients admitted to hospital at the weekend are more likely to be sicker and have a higher risk of death, compared with those admitted during the week, finds an analysis in England.