السبت، 18 يونيو 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Dynamics of a mixture or suspension: Dewatering natural fiber suspensions via compression

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 06:58 PM PDT

A group of researchers mimicked the compression of a traditional French coffee-making press to characterize the dewatering properties of natural fiber suspensions.

World's first 1,000-processor chip

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 06:58 PM PDT

A microchip containing 1,000 independent programmable processors has been designed. The energy-efficient 'KiloCore' chip has a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second and contains 621 million transistors.

Researchers open hairy new chapter in 3-D printing

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 11:06 AM PDT

Researchers have found a way to bypass a major design step in 3-D printing, to quickly and efficiently model and print thousands of hair-like structures. Instead of using conventional computer-aided design (CAD) software to draw thousands of individual hairs on a computer the team built a new software platform, called 'Cilllia,' that lets users define the angle, thickness, density, and height of thousands of hairs, in just a few minutes.

Rare, blind catfish never before found in US discovered in national park cave in Texas

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 11:06 AM PDT

An extremely rare eyeless catfish species previously known to exist only in Mexico has been discovered in Texas, report investigators.

New lizard found in Dominican Republic

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 11:05 AM PDT

Biologists have reported the discovery of a new lizard in the Dominican Republic, strengthening a long-held theory that communities of lizards can evolve almost identically on separate islands. The chameleon-like lizard -- a Greater Antillean anole dubbed Anolis landestoyi for the naturalist who first spotted and photographed it -- is one of the first new anole species found in the Dominican Republic in decades.

Blueberries' health benefits better than many perceive

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 09:07 AM PDT

Consumers know some of the benefits blueberries provide, but they're less aware of the advantages of reverting aging, improving vision and memory, a new study shows. Researchers surveyed more than 2,000 people in 31 states – mostly on the East Coast and in the Midwest – to see what they know about the health benefits of blueberries.

Troubled-youth facilities benefit from 'ecological approach'

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 09:07 AM PDT

The difficult, and sometimes dangerous, job of caregiving in residential facilities for troubled youth becomes notably more fulfilling when agencies de-emphasize behavior control in favor of creating opportunities for children's success.

Astrophysicists release new study of one of the first stars

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 09:04 AM PDT

A research team has used the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to study key regions of the ultraviolet spectrum of a star thought to have been enriched by elements from one of the first generation of stars.

Why tungsten-doped thin films degrade so rapidly in air

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:40 AM PDT

A new understanding of why tungsten-doped thin films degrade so rapidly in air may lead to better designs for semiconductor technologies.

A deadly delivery for triple-negative breast cancer tumors

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:40 AM PDT

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may help destroy difficult-to-treat triple-negative breast cancer tumors.

Threading the way to touch-sensitive robots

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:40 AM PDT

Smart threads can be woven into pressure-sensitive electronic skin for robots or medical prosthetics.

Nanotech extends shelf life of fresh fruit

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:40 AM PDT

An international research team is developing nanotechnology-based applications of hexanal, a natural plant extract that extends the storage life of harvested fruit.

Map of diamond-boron bond paves way for new materials

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:40 AM PDT

Scientists have successfully recorded the atomic bonds between diamond and cubic boron nitride: the hardest known materials on Earth. This feat could ultimately lead to the design of new types of semiconductors, they say.

The dopamine advantage

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:38 AM PDT

The junctions between nerve cells responsible for releasing and receiving dopamine in the brain are a surprising mismatch that gives this chemical a strong competitive advantage, report researchers.

Potential drug target identified for Zika, similar viruses

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:37 AM PDT

A single gene pathway that is vital for Zika and other flaviviruses to spread infection between cells has now been identified by researchers. Further, they showed that shutting down a single gene in this pathway -- in both human and insect cells -- does not negatively affect the cells themselves and renders flaviviruses unable to leave the infected cell, curbing the spread of infection.

Bone artifacts suggest early adoption of poison-tipped arrow technology in Eastern Africa

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:36 AM PDT

Researchers studying bone artifacts have discovered in the Kuumbi Cave, Zanzibar, have found evidence to suggest that bone tools were used for hunting, and even as poison arrow tips. The findings suggest that bone technology was a central element to the Kuumbi Cave's inhabitants over 13,000 years ago.

Fetal BPA exposure in mice linked to estrogen-related diseases after adolescence

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:36 AM PDT

The genome is permanently altered in the uterus of mice that had been exposed to BPA during their fetal development, new research indicates.

Exercise may have therapeutic potential for expediting muscle repair in older populations

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:36 AM PDT

Here's another reason why you should hit the gym regularly as you grow older: a new report shows that regular exercise plays a critical role in helping muscles repair themselves as quickly as possible after injury. After only eight weeks of exercise, old mice experienced faster muscle repair and regained more muscle mass than those of the same age that had not exercised.

Circuit technology that resolves issues with high-frequency piezoelectric resonators

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:35 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a new algorithm and circuit technology allowing high-frequency piezoelectric resonators to be used for phase locked loops (PLL). It was confirmed that these operate with low noise and have an excellent Figure of Merit compared to conventional PLLs.

Mother mongooses may risk death to protect unborn children

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:35 AM PDT

Mothers will do anything to protect their children, but mongooses go a step further. Mongooses risk their own survival to protect their unborn children through a remarkable ability to adapt their own bodies, says new research.

Animal hormone is involved in plant stress memory

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:35 AM PDT

Regulating melatonin production in plants via drought priming could be a promising approach to enhancing abiotic stress tolerance of crops in future climate scenarios, report investigators.

New imaging method reveals nanoscale details about DNA

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 08:34 AM PDT

A new enhanced DNA imaging technique has been developed that can probe the structure of individual DNA strands at the nanoscale. Since DNA is at the root of many disease processes, the technique could help scientists gain important insights into what goes wrong when DNA becomes damaged or when other cellular processes affect gene expression.

NASA's Juno spacecraft to risk Jupiter's fireworks for science

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:53 AM PDT

On July 4, NASA will fly a solar-powered spacecraft the size of a basketball court within 2,900 miles (4,667 kilometers) of the cloud tops of our solar system's largest planet. During the flybys, Juno will probe beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and study its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere.

Dividing the spoils of cooperation

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:50 AM PDT

When choosing unrelated male partners for cooperative ventures, men value productivity as well as generosity and trustworthiness, new research indicates.

Smoking can hamper common treatment for breast cancer

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:50 AM PDT

We know that individuals who smoke take major health risks. Now a new research study shows that common treatment for breast cancer works less well in patients who smoke, compared to non-smokers.

Major differences between women and men who commit deadly violence

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:50 AM PDT

Women who commit deadly violence are different in many ways from male perpetrators, both in terms of the most common victims, the way in which the murder is committed, the place where it is carried out and the perpetrator's background.

Terahertz radiation: Useful source for food safety

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

A compact and low-cost emitter generates light across the entire terahertz spectrum. Scientists say that it provides an effective and less expensive tool for the inspection of food and drugs.

Scientists discover mechanism of thalidomide

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

In the 1950s, thalidomide (Contergan) was prescribed as a sedative drug to pregnant women, resulting in a great number of infants with serious malformations. Up to now, the reasons for these disastrous birth defects have remained unclear. Researchers have now at last identified the molecular mechanism of thalidomide. Their findings are highly relevant to current cancer therapies, as related substances are essential components of modern cancer treatment regimens.

Multicolor super resolution imaging

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new method, using super-resolution microscopy, to determine the length of stretched proteins in living cells, and monitor the dynamic binding of proteins, at sub-second timescales.

PI3K protein: Potential new therapeutic target in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated that selective inactivation of the p110&alpha, PI3K isoform is sufficient to block tumor progression and metastasis in a mice model of PanNETs

X-ray-free electron laser reveals radiosensitizing effects at molecular level

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

Researchers shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind radiation-based cancer therapies, through new study.

New research paves way for improved individual treatment of patients with cancer

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

A new study has found new molecular sub-groups in early stages of bladder cancer. This improves the understanding of why some tumors develop aggressively and this discovery may lead to optimized treatment.

New mechanism activates the immune system against tumor cells

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:49 AM PDT

It is currently one challenge in cancer research to activate the body's natural defenses to eliminate tumor cells. A research team has now discovered with her team a surprising new function for the signalling molecule STAT1 in immune cells. This previously unknown feature could pave the way to a new therapeutic approach to immunological cancer therapy.

Small asteroid is Earth's constant companion

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 07:47 AM PDT

A small asteroid has been discovered in an orbit around the sun that keeps it as a constant companion of Earth, and it will remain so for centuries to come.

Power seekers do not see discrimination

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:39 AM PDT

People who are interested in gaining power for themselves are less aware than others of discrimination and injustice in the workplace, suggests a new study.

How black hole jets break out of their galaxies

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:39 AM PDT

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centres of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. About 10 per cent of all galaxies with active nuclei – all presumed to have supermassive black holes within the central bulge – are observed to have jets of gas spurting in opposite directions from the core. The hot ionized gas is propelled by the twisting magnetic fields of the rotating black hole, which can be as large as several billion suns.

Unexpected Excess of Giant Planets in Star Cluster Messier 67

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:25 AM PDT

Astronomers have found that there are far more planets of the hot Jupiter type than expected in a cluster of stars called Messier 67. This surprising result was obtained using a number of telescopes and instruments. The denser environment in a cluster will cause more frequent interactions between planets and nearby stars, which may explain the excess of hot Jupiters.

Paris attacks: A novel research program on traumatic memories

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:25 AM PDT

How will the traumatic events of the terrorist attacks of 13 November 2015 evolve in people's memories, whether collective or individual? How does individual memory feed on collective memory and vice versa? Is it possible, by studying cerebral markers, to predict which victims will develop post-traumatic stress disorder and which will recover more quickly?

How your parenting style affects your child's future

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:25 AM PDT

Scientists have released survey results showing that children who receive positive attention and care from their parents tend to have high incomes, high happiness levels, academic success, and a strong sense of morality.

Method for detecting quantum entanglement refined

Posted: 17 Jun 2016 05:23 AM PDT

In the future when quantum computers become available, this method can potentially serve as a tool in certifying whether the system has enough entanglement between the qubits.

New approach to building efficient thermoelectric nanomaterials

Posted: 16 Jun 2016 05:27 PM PDT

A team of researchers has found a new path to large improvements in the efficiency of materials for solid-state heating and cooling and waste energy recapture.

Analyzing how ISIS recruits through social media

Posted: 16 Jun 2016 12:13 PM PDT

Researchers have developed a model to identify behavioral patterns among serious online groups of ISIS supporters that could provide cyber police and other anti-terror watchdogs a roadmap to their activity and indicators when conditions are ripe for the onset of real-world attacks.

FBI approach to investigations puts security at risk, experts say

Posted: 16 Jun 2016 12:07 PM PDT

Experts say the FBI's efforts to compel Apple to write software to unlock an iPhone used by a terrorist reflects an outdated approach to law enforcement that threatens to weaken smartphones security, putting the private information of millions of people at risk and undermining the growing use of smartphones as trusted authenticators for accessing online information.

Cholera vaccine study in Haiti suggests problems with current booster regimen

Posted: 16 Jun 2016 12:07 PM PDT

Cholera outbreaks are on the rise. To prevent and control them, three oral cholera vaccines are currently approved by WHO. A study examining the immune response to one of them in Haitian adults finds that while the first vaccine round elicits a strong cholera-specific response in the mucosa (the first point of contact with the cholera pathogen), the booster dose after 2 weeks does not appear to stimulate the immune system further.

Mosquito saliva increases disease severity following dengue virus infection

Posted: 16 Jun 2016 12:07 PM PDT

Insects transmit diseases when, probing for blood vessels, they inject saliva together with viral, bacterial, or parasitic pathogens into the skin of mammalian hosts. A study in mice suggests a critical role of mosquito saliva in the outcome of dengue virus infection.