السبت، 24 ديسمبر 2016

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

Genes Nardilysin, OGDHL linked to human neurological conditions

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:59 AM PST

The gene, OGDHL, a key protein required for normal function of the mitochondria -- the energy-producing factory of the cell -- and its chaperone, nardilysin (NRD1) are linked to progressive loss of neurological function in humans, an international team of scientists has discovered.

Burning more fat, less glucose could lead to diabetes, mouse models indicate

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:59 AM PST

Making muscles burn more fat and less glucose can increase exercise endurance, but could simultaneously cause diabetes, says a team of scientists.

Genetic cause identified for previously unrecognized developmental disorder

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:59 AM PST

An international team of scientists has identified variants of the gene EBF3 causing a developmental disorder with features in common with autism. Identification of these gene variants leads to a better understanding of these complex conditions and opens the possibility of diagnosing other previously undiagnosed patients with similar clinical disorders

Protein that activates immune response harms body's ability to fight HIV

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:58 AM PST

Temporarily blocking a type of protein, called type I interferon, can restore immune function and speed up viral suppression during treatment with anti-viral drugs for people with chronic infection of the virus that causes AIDS, findings from a study in animals appear to demonstrate.

Research aids discovery of genetic immune disorder

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:58 AM PST

Investigators have identified a genetic immune disorder characterized by increased susceptibility and poor immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, in some cases, an EBV-associated cancer called Hodgkin's lymphoma. The researchers studied two unrelated sets of siblings with similar immune problems and determined their symptoms were likely caused by a lack of CD70, a protein found on the surface of several types of immune cells.

Visualizing gene expression with MRI

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:58 AM PST

A cellular gatekeeper for water molecules finds new use in magnetic resonance imaging, a new report explains.

Genomic sequencing illuminates recent Shigella outbreaks in California

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:57 AM PST

In a study that could have significant impact on how disease outbreaks are managed, researchers have sequenced and analyzed genomes from Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) bacteria associated with major shigellosis outbreaks in California in 2014 and 2015.

Capsule for severe bleeding disorder moves closer to reality

Posted: 23 Dec 2016 08:22 AM PST

Researchers are working to develop a pill to treat this serious inherited bleeding disorder. Oral delivery of the treatment--clotting factor IX--would allow individuals with type B hemophilia to swallow a pill rather than be subjected to several weekly injections of factor IX to control potentially fatal bleeding episodes.

Linking human genome sequences to health data will change clinical medicine, says expert

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:15 PM PST

The value of intersecting the sequencing of individuals' exomes (all expressed genes) or full genomes to find rare genetic variants -- on a large scale -- with their detailed electronic health record (EHR) information may have big benefits for medicine, reports a new article.

Smoking while pregnant may compromise children’s kidney function

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:15 PM PST

Compared with those born from nonsmoking mothers, young children whose mothers smoked while pregnant were 1.24-times more likely to show signs of kidney damage, research shows.

Prior kidney damage may pose risks for pregnant women and their babies

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:15 PM PST

Women with a history of recovered acute kidney injury had an increased rate of preeclampsia and delivered infants earlier than women with a history of normal kidney function, new research concludes.

Protein monitors lung volume, regulates breathing

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:13 PM PST

A new study might help shed light on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in human babies, which is thought to be associated with dysfunctional airway sensory neurons.

Final trial results confirm Ebola vaccine provides high protection against disease

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:13 PM PST

An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly protective against the deadly virus in a major trial in Guinea, according to results of a new study. The vaccine is the first to prevent infection from one of the most lethal known pathogens, and the findings add weight to early trial results published last year.

Heart-related deaths spike at Christmas

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 04:13 PM PST

Heart-related deaths spike during Christmas, but the effect may have nothing to do with the cold winter season, according to new research.

Losing sleep over discrimination? 'everyday discrimination' may contribute to sleep problems

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 11:36 AM PST

People who perceive more discrimination in daily life have higher rates of sleep problems, based on both subjective and objective measures, reports a new study.

Process cells use to destroy damaged organelles now identified

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 11:35 AM PST

Researchers have uncovered the mechanism that cells use to find and destroy an organelle called mitochondria that, when damaged, may lead to genetic problems, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory disease, and aging.

What makes a skin cell destined to be hairy or sweaty

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 11:34 AM PST

Researchers have identified the signals and exact timing during embryonic development that dictate the fate of skin cells to be sweaty or hairy. Unlike other mammals that must pant or seek shade when overheated, humans are able to self-cool by sweating.

New groundbreaking research on preterm birth

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 11:33 AM PST

Preterm birth -- birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy -- affects up to one in every six births in the United States and many other countries. In a recent study has discovered the critical function of a type of mother's immune cells -- B lymphocytes -- in resisting preterm birth triggered by inflammation.

Stem cell strategy for boosting testosterone levels tested in rodents

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 10:16 AM PST

Male hypogonadism is a condition that diminishes testosterone levels in approximately 30% of older men, but currently available therapies can produce serious side effects. In a new study, researchers developed an alternative approach involving the direct conversion of adult skin cells into functional testosterone-producing cells. When transplanted into male rodents with hypogonadism, these so-called Leydig-like cells survived and restored normal testosterone levels.

Controlling the body clock

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 10:16 AM PST

A new study investigates circadian timekeeping with a novel approach to creating genetic knock-out rescue mice. The study shows how this technique was used to quickly create numerous mouse lines, each with different mutations in a circadian regulator called CRY1. Studying each mutation and the effects on behavior showed that specific changes to the protein affected the duration of the circadian period.

New precision medicine tool helps optimize cancer treatment

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 10:05 AM PST

A user-friendly computational tool has been created that rapidly predicts which genes are implicated in an individual's cancer and recommends treatments.

High-mileage runners expend less energy than low-mileage runners

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 10:05 AM PST

Runners who consistently log high mileage show more neuromuscular changes that improve running efficiency than their low-mileage counterparts, according to researchers.

Sensor sensation: novel sensor capable of measuring both charge, mass of biomolecules

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:58 AM PST

A novel sensor capable of measuring both charge and mass of biomolecules with potential applications in healthcare diagnostics has been created by scientists.

Reducing the duration of antibiotics does more harm than good when treating ear infections in young children

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:53 AM PST

In a landmark trial, researchers have demonstrated that when treating children between 9 and 23 months of age with antibiotics for ear infections, a shortened course has worse clinical outcomes without reducing the risk of antibiotic resistance or adverse events.

Study identifies key indicators linking violence and mental illness

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:51 AM PST

New research finds a host of factors that are associated with subsequent risk of adults with mental illness becoming victims or perpetrators of violence. The work highlights the importance of interventions to treat mental-health problems in order to reduce community violence.

Direct-to-brain chemo better than systemic drugs when immunotherapy is to follow

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:51 AM PST

In experiments on mice with a form of aggressive brain cancer, researchers have shown that localized chemotherapy delivered directly to the brain rather than given systemically may be the best way to keep the immune system intact and strong when immunotherapy is also part of the treatment.

Researchers use mathematical modeling to explain evolutionary phenomenon that leads to treatment resistance

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:51 AM PST

Reserachers are using mathematical models to explain how bacteria and cancer cells exploit an evolutionary process known as bet-hedging to resist medical intervention.

Overweight affects DNA methylation

Posted: 22 Dec 2016 06:48 AM PST

The extra pounds you gain during the holidays will not only show up on your hips but will also affect your DNA, concludes a large-scale international study. The study shows that a high BMI leads to epigenetic changes at nearly 200 loci of the genome – with effects on gene expression.

New research could lead to blood test to detect Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Posted: 21 Dec 2016 12:27 PM PST

The detection of prions in the blood of patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease could lead to a noninvasive diagnosis prior to symptoms and a way to identify prion contamination of the donated blood supply, according to researchers.