الجمعة، 30 ديسمبر 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Scientists develop novel assay to decode functional elements of genome

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Scientists introduce method to identify regulatory sequences in RNA by analyzing their regulatory function in a massive parallel reporter assay during embryogenesis. The method is called RESA (RNA Element Selection Assay).

Jawing away: Bahama pupfish study identifies candidate genes driving food-niches

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Scientists have studied three closely related pupfish species peacefully co-existing because each, through subtle jaw size differences, has rapidly carved out its own food niche within the last 10,000 years. They have matched DNA changes with differences in jaw size to uncover candidate genes responsible, along with evidence supporting the role of large-effect alleles in crossing larger fitness valleys. More large-effect alleles were required to evolve large jaws than small jaws.

Antibiotic resistance just became more complex

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Bacteria that are susceptible to antibiotics can survive when enough resistant cells around them are expressing an antibiotic-deactivating factor. This new take on how the microbial context can compromise antibiotic therapy was just published by a team of microbiologists.

Did teen perception, use of marijuana change after recreational use legalized?

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Marijuana use increased and the drug's perceived harmfulness decreased among eighth- and 10th-graders in Washington after marijuana was legalized for recreational use by adults but there was no change among 12th-graders or among students in the three grades in Colorado after legalization for adults there, according to a new study.

How much money is spent on health care for kids, where does it go?

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Health care spending on children grew 56 percent between 1996 and 2013, with the most money spent in 2013 on inpatient well-newborn care, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and well-dental care, according to a new article.

'Friendship Bench' program proves effective at alleviating mental illness symptoms

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Brief psychological treatment delivered by Zimbabwean lay health workers dramatically improved the symptoms of patients with mental health problems, according to new research.

Inactivity in obese mice linked to a decreased motivation to move

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:19 AM PST

Starting a regular program at the gym is a common New Year's resolution, but it's one that most people are unable to stick with for very long. Now a study done in mice is providing clues about one of the reasons why it may be hard for so many people to stick with an exercise program. The investigators found that in obese mice, physical inactivity results from altered dopamine receptors rather than excess body weight.

Your microbiota's previous dining experiences may make new diets less effective

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Your microbiota may not be on your side as you try improving your diet this New Year's. In a new study, researchers explore why mice that switch from an unrestricted American diet to a healthy, calorie-restricted, plant-based diet don't have an immediate response to their new program. They found that certain human gut bacteria need to be lost for a diet plan to be successful.

Languages still a major barrier to global science, new research finds

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Over one-third of new conservation science documents published annually are in non-English languages, despite assumption of English as scientific 'lingua franca.' Researchers find examples of important science missed at international level, and practitioners struggling to access new knowledge, as a result of language barriers.

The rhythm that makes memories permanent

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Every time we learn something new, the memory does not only need to be acquired, it also needs to be stabilized in a process called memory consolidation. Brain waves are considered to play an important role in this process, but the underlying mechanism that dictates their shape and rhythm was still unknown. A study now shows that one of the brain waves important for consolidating memory is dominated by synaptic inhibition.

New tool shines light on protein condensation in living cells

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have unveiled a new tool that uses light to manipulate proteins inside cells, causing liquid-like structures known as membraneless organelles to condense out of a cell's watery environment. Because these structures play a critical role in cellular operations, and possibly in disease development, the researchers believe the tool will open new areas of cellular biology to exploration.

Gut microorganisms affect our physiology

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Researchers have found evidence that could shed new light on the complex community of trillions of microorganisms living in all our guts, and how they interact with our bodies.

Scientists engineer gene pathway to grow brain organoids with surface folding

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Researchers provide insight into a specific gene pathway that appears to regulate the growth, structure, and organization of the human cortex. They also demonstrate that 3-D human cerebral organoids can be effective in modeling the molecular, cellular, and anatomical processes of human brain development. And they suggest a new path for identifying the cells affected by Zika virus.

Ancient Chaco Canyon population likely relied on imported food

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

The ancient inhabitants of New Mexico's Chaco Canyon, the zenith of Pueblo culture in the Southwest a thousand years ago, likely had to import corn to feed the multitudes residing there, says a new study.

Anti-aging therapies targeting senescent cells: Facts and fiction

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

It's an exciting time to be an elderly mouse. Researchers believe that by removing senescent cells (cells with a persistent damage response), which naturally accumulate with age, senior rodents can regrow hair, run faster, and improve organ function. This strategy may bring us one step closer to the 'fountain of youth,' but it's important to be cautious and not hype, says a researcher of aging.

Psychiatric conditions linked to increased risk of long-term opioid use

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

A wide range of pre-existing psychiatric and behavioral conditions and the use of psychoactive drugs could be important risk factors leading to long-term use of opioid pain medications.

Varmint hunters' ammo selection influences lead exposure in avian scavengers

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:18 AM PST

Varmint hunters' choice of ammunition plays a role in the amount of lead that scavengers such as golden eagles could ingest, a new study shows, and offers a way to minimize the lead exposure to wildlife.

New way to defeat therapy-resistant prostate cancer

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:17 AM PST

A new study sheds light on a signaling circuit in cells that drives therapy resistance in prostate cancer. The researchers found that targeting the components of this circuit suppresses advanced prostate cancer development.

Round or 'shaped' breast implants? Even plastic surgeons can't tell the difference

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 11:17 AM PST

Looking at before-and-after photos, plastic surgeons and nurses can't tell whether breast augmentation surgery was done using conventional round implants or newer anatomically shaped implants, reports a new study.

Drug discovery approach predicts health impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 10:18 AM PST

 Breast cancer researchers from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a novel approach for identifying how chemicals in the environment—called environmental estrogens—can produce infertility, abnormal reproductive development, including "precocious puberty," and promote breast cancer.

No excuses: Real reason you’re late may vary with age

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:56 AM PST

A song is just a song, but as time goes by, something as random as a song's length could be the difference in whether you miss an important deadline or arrive late for an appointment, suggests time-management research.

Novel hardware-based modeling approach for multi-robot tasks

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:56 AM PST

Technological revolution means robots no longer are the song of the future. The Governor of the Bank of England predicts today that up to half of British workforce face redundancy in the imminent 'second machine age'. No wonder, the research of multi-robot systems generates serious buzz both for promising (albeit at times scary) results and for their application prospects in the real world.

New nutritional strategy gives a boost to tiny premature babies

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:54 AM PST

On New Year's Day this coming Sunday, we will once again be waiting to see the first baby is born safe and sound to be our "New Year's Baby 2017". It could even be a premature baby. The tiniest premature babies – weighing less than 1 kg at birth – often fail to gain very much weight during their long stay in hospital and this impacts upon their subsequent growth. Now, however, a retrospective data analysis has shown that "more aggressive" nutrition, especially including more protein, brings about a significant improvement in the nutritional status, development and growth of these tiny infants.

Can paint strokes help identify Alzheimer's?

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

A new study shows that it may be possible to detect neurodegenerative disorders in artists before they are diagnosed.

Aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer: Advantages over tamoxifen in early-stage disease

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

Patients survive longer, recurrences occur later, and certain side effects occur less often. Overall, the evidence for late-stage disease is much poorer.

Experts call for expansion of molecular imaging in precision cancer care

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

New molecular imaging technologies can make it easier to diagnose, monitor, and treat cancers while potentially saving patients from undergoing therapies that are likely to be ineffective and playing a role in minimizing side effects.

High performance Cu(OH)2 supercapacitor electrodes fabricated

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

Applying electric field in the ammonium based solution has been used for the fabrication of different forms of copper hydroxide nanostructures. The supercapacitance performance of synthesized nanostructures has been investigated and high specific capacitance of 178 F/g at scan rate of 20 mVs-1 was obtained. The fast, simple and low cost electric field enhanced synthesis method proposed here can be used for fabrication of high performance Cu(OH)2 nanostructured supercapacitance electrodes.

Nitrogen doped bimodal cellular structure activated carbon produced

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

Phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) organic foam were used as precusors for the new monolithic nitrogen-containing microporous cellular activated carbons production. Carbonization and CO2 activation were used to prepare this novel monolithic nitrogen-containing activated carbon foam with both interconnected macroporous and micro/meso- porosity structures from the developed PUF organic foam.

Responsive filtration membranes by polymer self-assembly

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

Polymer self-assembly is a crucial tool for manufacturing membranes using scalable methods, enabling easier commercialization. This review surveys approaches to impart stimuli responsive behavior to membrane filters using polymer self-assembly.

Image-based modeling

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:35 AM PST

Novel and realistic simulation tool combining high resolution biomedical imaging and supercomputer computational fluid dynamics results in ability to model the exact hydrodynamic microenvironment experienced by cells cultured in bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

Iron deficiency anemia associated with hearing loss

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Medical researchers examined the association between sensorineural hearing loss and conductive hearing loss and iron deficiency anemia in adults ages 21 to 90 years in the United States.

Quarter of a million tons of food could be saved a year with better logistics

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Each year, around 88 million tons of food is discarded in the EU. This is something that researchers wants to do something about. They are now giving companies in the food supply chain specific tools that can reduce both food waste and the environmental impact of food transport.

Omega-3 supplements can prevent childhood asthma

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Taking certain omega-3 fatty acid supplements during pregnancy can reduce the risk of childhood asthma by almost one third, according to a new study.

Possible treatment targets found for pre-malignant bone marrow disorders

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Medical researchers report on a new mechanism that controls blood cell function and several possible molecular targets for treating myelodysplasia syndromes (MDS) -- a group of pre-malignant disorders in which bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a fast-spreading blood cancer that can be deadly if not treated promptly. The authors report that overexpression of a protein called TRAF6 in hematopoietic (blood) cells drives the onset of MDS.

Most doctors ignore one of the most potent ways to improve health

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Leveraging existing relationships with friends and family may be a more effective way to improve patients' health and encourage new healthy habits and behaviors than increasing interactions with physicians or other clinicians. In a new perspective article, behavioral economists suggest a five-step ladder to effectively engineering social engagements that promote health and to test their acceptability and effectiveness.

Biomarker tests in breast cancer: Decision on chemotherapy remains difficult

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Omitting chemotherapy can lead to more cases of distant metastasis and deaths. It cannot yet be judged whether this risk outweighs the chemotherapy-related burden.

Flood threats changing across US

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

A new study finds the threat of flooding is increasing in the northern half of the United States and declining in the South. The findings are based on water-height measurements at 2,042 stream and rivers, compared to NASA data showing the amount of water stored in the ground.

Hubble gazes at a cosmic 'megamaser'

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

This entire galaxy essentially acts as an astronomical laser that beams out microwave emission rather than visible light (hence the 'm' replacing the 'l').

Genes and the environment equally affect language-related brain activity

Posted: 29 Dec 2016 08:34 AM PST

Researchers showed that brain activity in the left frontal area is equally affected by environmental and genetic factors. They also demonstrated that verbal memory is related to language-related brain activity. The findings provide novel insights into how language is influenced by genes and the environment.