الجمعة، 13 يناير 2017

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Being rude to your child's doctor could lead to worse care

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 12:36 PM PST

Emotions tend to run high in hospitals, and patients or patients' loved ones can be rude to medical professionals when they perceive inadequate care. Investigators warn though, that being rude may lead to worse care for your child.

Baboons produce vocalizations comparable to vowels

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:31 AM PST

Baboons produce vocalizations comparable to vowels. This has been demonstrated using acoustic analyses of vocalizations coupled with an anatomical study of the tongue muscles and the modeling of the acoustic potential of the vocal tract in monkeys. The data confirm that baboons are capable of producing at least five vocalizations with the properties of vowels, in spite of their high larynx, and that they are capable of combining them when they communicate with their partners. The vocalizations of baboons thus point to a system of speech among non-human primates.

Fish lightly to keep snapper on the reef

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:14 AM PST

Scientists have looked at 253 coral reef sites across the Indian Ocean. They found that top-level predator fish -- such as snapper and grouper -- were easily overfished and require a different approach if they are to be conserved.

Microbes rule in 'knee-high tropical rainforests'

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:14 AM PST

Rainforests on infertile wet soils support more than half of all plant species. Shrublands on infertile dry soils in southwestern Australia, jokingly called 'knee-high tropical rainforests', support another 20 percent of all plants. In both, plants team up with soil bacteria or fungi to gather nutrients more efficiently. The plants' choice of microbial teammates influences a suite of other plant-soil interactions that help explain why such different environments are so biologically diverse.

Master regulator of cellular aging discovered

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:13 AM PST

Scientists have discovered a protein that fine-tunes the cellular clock involved in aging.

Decreasing cocaine use leads to regression of coronary artery disease

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:13 AM PST

People who use cocaine regularly are at high risk of coronary artery disease. A study now reports that stopping or reducing cocaine use can potentially reverse the process of coronary atherosclerosis.

'Mysterious' non-protein-coding RNAs play important roles in gene expression

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:13 AM PST

Enhancers boost the rate of gene expression from nearby protein-coding genes so a cell can pump out more of a needed protein molecule. A mysterious subset of non-coding RNAs -- enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are transcribed from enhancer sequences. Shedding new light on these elusive eRNAs, researchers showed that CBP, an enzyme that activates transcription from enhancers, binds directly to eRNAs to control patterns of gene expression by acetylation.

Study outlines framework for identifying disease risk in genome sequence

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:13 AM PST

Imagine a day when you visit the doctor's office for your annual physical. Your physician orders routine tests -- cholesterol, glucose and blood count -- but they also order a sequence of your genome, all 3 billion letters of it. Routine genomic testing is not far away, according to researchers.

Crybaby: The vitamins in your tears

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:13 AM PST

Would you rather shed a couple tears or have your blood drawn? Testing for nutritional deficiencies in blood can be invasive and expensive. Researchers explored what it takes to switch to tears instead and their study focuses on the nutritional connection between infants and parents.

Classic video game system used to improve understanding of the brain

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

The complexity of neural networks makes them difficult to analyze, but humanmade computing systems should be simpler to understand. Researchers have now applied widely used neuroscience approaches to analyze the classic games console Atari 2600 -- which runs the video game 'Donkey Kong' -- and found that such approaches do not meaningfully describe how the console's microprocessor really works.

New system for forming memories

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

Until now, the hippocampus was considered the most important brain region for forming and recalling memory, with other regions only contributing as subordinates. But a new study finds that a brain region called entorhinal cortex plays a new and independent role in memory. Researchers showed that, in rats, the entorhinal cortex replays memories of movement independent of input from the hippocampus.

Improving longevity of functionally integrated stem cells in regenerative vision therapy

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

One of the challenges in developing stem cell therapies is ensuring that transplanted cells can survive long enough to work. Researchers report one of the first demonstrations of long-term vision restoration in blind mice by transplanting photoreceptors derived from human stem cells and blocking the immune response that causes transplanted cells to be rejected. The findings support a path to improving clinical applications in restoring human vision lost to degenerative eye diseases.

Scientists tie the tightest knot ever achieved

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

Scientists have produced the most tightly knotted physical structure ever known -- a scientific achievement which has the potential to create a new generation of advanced materials.

Bacteria recruit other species with long-range electrical signals

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

The same biologists who recently found that bacteria resolve social conflicts within their communities and communicate with one another like neurons in the brain have discovered another human-like trait in these apparently not-so-simple, single-celled creatures.

Biologists discover how viruses hijack cell's machinery

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

Biologists have documented for the first time how very large viruses reprogram the cellular machinery of bacteria during infection to more closely resemble an animal or human cell -- a process that allows these alien invaders to trick cells into producing hundreds of new viruses, which eventually explode from and kill the cells they infect.

Wearable biosensors can flag illness, Lyme disease, risk for diabetes; low airplane oxygen

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:11 AM PST

Can your smart watch detect when you are becoming sick? A new study indicates that this is possible. By following 60 people through their everyday lives, researchers found that smart watches and other personal biosensor devices can help flag when people have colds and even signal the onset of complex conditions like Lyme disease and diabetes.

Mapping movements of alien bird species

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:11 AM PST

A global map of alien bird species has been produced for the first time by a team of researchers. It shows that human activities are the main determinants of how many alien bird species live in an area but that alien species are most successful in areas already rich with native bird species.

Researchers create mosquito resistant to dengue virus

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:11 AM PST

Researchers have genetically modified mosquitoes to resist infection from dengue virus, a virus that sickens an estimated 96 million people globally each year and kills more than 20,000, mostly children.

Ice Age 'skeleton crew' offers insights for today’s endangered species

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:10 AM PST

The ghosts of Ice Age mammals can teach valuable, real-world lessons about what happens to an ecosystem when its most distinct species go extinct, according to a new study.

Searching for planets in the Alpha Centauri system

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:07 AM PST

Astronomers are conducting a search for planets in the nearby star system Alpha Centauri. Such planets could be the targets for an eventual launch of miniature space probes by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative.

Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:01 AM PST

The bacteria behind the life-threatening disease cholera initiates infection by coordinating a wave of mass shapeshifting that allows them to more effectively penetrate their victims' intestines, researchers have found. The researchers also identified the protein that allows Vibrio cholerae to morph, and found that it's activated through quorum sensing. The findings could lead to new treatments for cholera that target the bacteria's ability to change shape or penetrate the gut.

Why do killer whales go through menopause? Mother-daughter conflict is key

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:01 AM PST

Killer whales are one of only three species that are known to go through menopause, surviving long after they've stopped reproducing. Those older females play an essential role in helping their younger family members to find food and survive even in lean times. But, researchers report in a new study, the reason older females stop reproducing has more to do with conflict between mothers and their daughters than it does with cooperation.

Scientists switch on predatory kill instinct in mice

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:01 AM PST

Researchers have isolated the brain circuitry that coordinates predatory hunting, according to a new study. One set of neurons in the amygdala, the brain's center of emotion and motivation, cues the animal to pursue prey. Another set signals the animal to use its jaw and neck muscles to bite and kill.

How well do we understand the relation between incorrect chromosome number, cancer?

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 10:01 AM PST

Researchers report surprising results of experiments intended to explore the consequences of having too many or too few chromosomes, a phenomenon that biologists call aneuploidy. They were surprised to find that having one extra chromosome actually supresses cancer, contrary to long-held belief.

3-D printing could transform future membrane technology

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:57 AM PST

Researchers suggest developments in 3-D printing techniques could open the door to the advancement of membrane capabilities.

Exercise ... It does a body good: 20 minutes can act as anti-inflammatory

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:57 AM PST

It's well known that regular physical activity has health benefits, including weight control, strengthening the heart, bones and muscles and reducing the risk of certain diseases. Recently, researchers have found how just one session of moderate exercise can also act as an anti-inflammatory. The findings have encouraging implications for chronic diseases like arthritis, fibromyalgia and for more pervasive conditions, such as obesity.

'Shrew'-d study: Arctic shrews, parasites indicate climate change effect on ecosystems

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:57 AM PST

The shrew and its parasites -- even 40-year-old preserved ones -- are the new indicators of environmental change, according a researcher. A new study indicates a changes in shrews' ranges whenever the climate warms. Using archived field collections of shrews, the researchers can collect DNA, the animals' diets and parasites that can be used to predict future changes and how changes with shrews can affect large animal communities.

Twelve new tombs discovered in Gebel el Silsila, Egypt

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:50 AM PST

The Swedish mission at Gebel el Silsila has discovered 12 new tombs dating from the 18th Dynasty (Thutmosid period), including crypts cut into the rock, rock-cut tombs with one or two chambers, niches possibly used for offering, a tomb containing multiple animal burials, and several juvenal burials, some intact.

Perfect powder: Laboratory perfects metal powders for manufacturing

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

A high-pressure gas atomization process has garnered an American laboratory at least 16 patents over the last two decades and created a spin-off company.

Affordable water in the US: A burgeoning crisis

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

If water rates continue rising at projected amounts, the number of US households unable to afford water could triple in five years, to nearly 36 percent, finds new research.

Advanced metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors: New drug in development shows improved progression-free survival for patients

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

A new therapy in development for the treatment of midgut neuroendocrine tumors, a rare type of cancer that occurs in the small intestine and colon, shows improved progression-free survival and response rates for patients with advanced disease.

Viruses in genome important for our brain

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

Over millions of years retroviruses have been incorporated into our human DNA, where they today make up almost 10 per cent of the total genome. A research group has now discovered a mechanism through which these retroviruses may have an impact on gene expression. This means that they may have played a significant role in the development of the human brain as well as in various neurological diseases.

Exercise, diet could offset effects of malaria, study shows

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

The right amount of diet and exercise can help lessen damage to the heart and skeletal muscles brought on by malaria, according to a new study.

Miami doctors publish study of first locally-acquired Zika transmission

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

Following the recent Zika outbreak in Miami-Dade County, a multidisciplinary team of physicians has published a case study describing in detail the nation's first locally-transmitted case of Zika.

Offenders' deadly thoughts may hold answer to reducing crime

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

It's something many of us may say in anger, but don't really mean. However, for a small percentage of the population homicidal thoughts are very real. Now a researcher says that identifying criminal offenders with homicidal ideation could change how we sentence and treat some of the most serious offenders.

Building London's Houses of Parliament helped create clean-air laws

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

Britain's dazzling Houses of Parliament building, constructed from 1840 until 1870, is an international icon. But the building's greatest legacy may be something politicians and tourists don't think about much: the clean air around it. That's the implication of newly published research by an architectural historian who through original archival work has reconstructed a piece of history lost in the haze of time.

Target freshers to halt spread of meningitis, say researchers

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

A campaign targeted at students arriving at university for the first time could hold the key to reducing the spread of meningitis and septicemia, say researchers in England.

This bay in Scandinavia has world record in carbon storing

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

Forests are potent carbon sinks, but also the oceans' seagrasses can store enormous amounts of carbon. A little bay in Denmark stores a record amount of carbon. Here is the secret.

Conservation practices may leave African indigenous populations behind

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

Conservation and logging groups in Central and West Africa are failing to fully incorporate local concerns into management, marginalizing the livelihoods of the local population, according to research.

The moon is older than scientists thought

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

The moon is much older than some scientists believe, a research team now reports. Their precise analysis of zircons bought to Earth by Apollo 14 astronauts reveals the moon is at least 4.51 billion years old and probably formed only about 60 million years after the birth of the solar system -- 40 to 140 million years earlier than recently thought.

Online dating booming but how much does education matter?

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

Online daters are most likely to contact people with the same level of education as them, but are less fussy about an intellectual match as they get older, according to new research.

Training computers to differentiate between people with the same name

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

How do you tell which Anna Hernandez authored a specific study or which Robert Jones is attempting to board an airplane flight? New researchers have developed a novel-machine learning method to provide better solutions to the perplexing problem of name disambiguation.

CRISPR gene editing takes on rare immunodeficiency disorder

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

Researchers have harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 technology to correct mutations in the blood stem cells of patients with a rare immunodeficiency disorder; the engineered cells successfully engrafted in mice for up to five months.

Why Lyme disease is common in the North, rare in the South

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

When it's hot and not too muggy, Lyme disease-bearing black-legged ticks avoid desiccation by hiding out where people don't tread. Scientists say that's why the illness is rare in the South, and may eventually fade out along the Mason-Dixon line.

Sharing of data to combat infectious disease outbreaks

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 05:50 AM PST

To protect people against potentially deadly infectious disease outbreaks, it is critical that scientists and governments rapidly share information about the pathogens that cause them. A new shows how it is possible to encourage the greater international sharing of such data, despite numerous challenges that exist.

Yoga may have health benefits for people with chronic non-specific lower back pain

Posted: 11 Jan 2017 06:32 PM PST

Yoga may lead to a reduction in pain and functional ability in people with chronic non-specific lower back pain over the short term, compared with no exercise, a new systematic review suggests. However, researchers advise that more studies are needed to provide information on long-term effects.