الثلاثاء، 17 يناير 2017

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Maternal micronutrients, nurturing environment boost child development

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 04:04 PM PST

A new study offers a recipe for parents who want smarter kids: maternal micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, early life nurturing, happy moms, and educated parents.

Smoking related imagery absent from only one James Bond movie to date

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 04:04 PM PST

Smoking related imagery is conspicuous by its absence from only one Bond movie since 007 first graced cinema screens in 1962, finds a new analysis.

Acupuncture may alleviate babies' excessive crying (infantile colic)

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 04:03 PM PST

Acupuncture may be an effective treatment option for babies with infantile colic -- those who cry for more than three hours a day on three or more days of the week -- reveals research.

Student, professor use sports analytics to discover NCAA ranking patterns

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 02:14 PM PST

Does conference size impact conference rankings in NCAA men's basketball? According to research and analysis, it does.

Access to health care strengthens communities

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 01:11 PM PST

New research has focused on an aspect of the ACA/health care debate that hasn't really been discussed—the social impact on communities. The author of a new report was able to control for income level and other factors and still finds issues with trust, support and other issues in communities where members are uninsured.

For first time ever, x-ray imaging captures material defect process

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 01:10 PM PST

A new approach has been uncovered to detail the formation of material defects at the atomic scale and in near-real time, an important step that could assist in engineering better and stronger new materials.

Study finds high survival rate for elderly patients with implantable defibrillator

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 01:06 PM PST

Of patients over age 65 who received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) after surviving sudden cardiac arrest or a near-fatal arrhythmia, almost 80 percent survived two years—a higher rate than found in past trials performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the devices in this situation, according to a study.

Persistent infection keeps immune memory sharp, leading to long-term protection

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 01:05 PM PST

For many infectious diseases, a single bout of the illness protects a person against contracting it again. Sometimes, the infecting microbe persists in the body long after symptoms resolve. Now, researchers studying the tropical parasite Leishmania have found a clue to explain the link between long-term immunity and long-term infection: The parasite is constantly multiplying and being killed by immune cells, keeping the immune system alert and prepared for any new encounters with the parasite.

Now drivers can hear ambulances no matter how loud their music is playing

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:19 AM PST

If you've ever been startled by the sudden appearance of an ambulance while blasting music in your car, then you appreciate the value of a loud siren. Fortunately, your car is probably equipped already to receive warning signals on its audio system, thanks to a new solution developed by students in Sweden.

Every meal triggers inflammation

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:19 AM PST

When we eat, we do not just take in nutrients – we also consume a significant quantity of bacteria. The body is faced with the challenge of simultaneously distributing the ingested glucose and fighting these bacteria. This triggers an inflammatory response that activates the immune systems of healthy individuals and has a protective effect, as doctors have proven for the first time. In overweight individuals, however, this inflammatory response fails so dramatically that it can lead to diabetes.

Metabolic sensor causes granulomas to form

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:19 AM PST

Granulomas are tissue nodules of immune cells that occur in diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis and can damage many organs. For the first time, a team of researchers has identified what causes them to form. It is the chronic activation of the metabolic sensor mTOR (mammalian Target Of Rapamycin) that is responsible for the formation of granulomas. The scientists also discovered that, in sarcoidosis (in which granulomas cause damage to the lungs), this mechanism leads to a course that is chronic and difficult to treat. Since mTOR inhibitors belong to a group of drugs already licensed for clinical use, these findings offer new and quickly testable treatment options.

Genome sequence of polar alga explains evolutionary adaptation to extreme variable climate

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:18 AM PST

An international team of researchers has identified the genetic mutations which allowed microalgae (phytoplankton) from the Southern Ocean to adapt to extreme and highly variable climates -- a step towards understanding how polar organisms are impacted by climate change.

The lasting effects of ministrokes may contribute to dementia

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:18 AM PST

Investigators report preclinical research showing that microinfarcts induce prolonged dysfunction in brain areas estimated to be 12-times larger than the visible injury site. Data from c-Fos assays and in vivo hemodynamic imaging reveal how individually miniscule microinfarcts might collectively contribute to broader brain dysfunction in patients with vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

Tracking Antarctic adaptations in diatoms

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:18 AM PST

In the Antarctic Ocean, large populations of the diatom Fragillariopsis cylindrus dominate the phytoplankton communities. To learn more about how F. cylindrus adapted to its extremely cold environment, a team of researchers conducted a comparative genomic analysis involving three diatoms. The results provided insights into the genome structure and evolution of F. cylindrus, as well as this diatom's role in the Southern Ocean.

Study tracks 'memory' of soil moisture

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:18 AM PST

SMAP's first year of observational data has now been analyzed and is providing some significant surprises that will help in the modeling of climate, forecasting of weather, and monitoring of agriculture around the world.

Best treatment option written in cancer's genetic script

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 09:18 AM PST

An international collaboration has shown proof-of-concept that truly personalized therapy will be possible in the future for people with cancer. Details of how a knowledge bank could be used to find the best treatment option for people with acute myeloid leukemia are published in a new report.

Seeing the quantum future, literally

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Scientists have demonstrated the ability to 'see' the future of quantum systems and used that knowledge to preempt their demise, in a major achievement that could help bring the strange and powerful world of quantum technology closer to reality. Although applications of quantum-enabled technologies are compelling, quantum physicists had previously been stymied by the most significant obstacle to building reliable quantum technologies -- 'decoherence' or the randomization of quantum systems by their environments.

Nanoscale view of energy storage

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Through long shifts at the helm of a highly sophisticated microscope, researchers have recorded reactions at near-atomic-scale resolution. Their success is another step toward building a better battery.

Considering cattle could help eliminate malaria in India

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

The goal of eliminating malaria in countries like India could be more achievable if mosquito-control efforts take into account the relationship between mosquitoes and cattle, according to an international team of researchers.

Common crop chemical leaves bees susceptible to deadly viruses

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

A chemical that is thought to be safe and is, therefore, widely used on crops -- such as almonds, wine grapes and tree fruits -- to boost the performance of pesticides, makes honey bee larvae significantly more susceptible to a deadly virus, according to researchers.

New study refutes how fruit flies developed their tolerance for alcohol

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Scientists have conducted experiments investigating whether a molecular change in an enzyme gave the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly species its superior ability to metabolize alcohol.

Retail therapy for jealous partners

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

When people in a relationships feel jealous about the attention their partners are receiving, they are more likely to purchase eye-grabbing products. This is an attempt to recapture the attention of their partners, new research suggests.

Parents struggle with when to keep kids home sick from school

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:23 AM PST

Opinions among parents differ when it comes to how sick is too sick to stay home, or the importance of sick day consequences such as parents missing work or kids missing tests.

Simultaneous water, nitrogen use can enhance sustainability

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:20 AM PST

Researchers have studied diverse techniques to enhance the water- and nitrogen-use efficiency in cropping systems.

Presumed young star turns out to be a galactic senior citizen

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:20 AM PST

49 Lib, a relatively bright star in the southern sky, is twelve billion years old rather than just 2.3 billion. For many decades, researchers were stumped by conflicting data pertaining to this celestial body, because they had estimated it as much younger than it really is. Determining its age anew, astronomers have now successfully resolved all inconsistencies.

Nanoparticle exposure can awaken dormant viruses in the lungs

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:20 AM PST

Nanoparticles from combustion engines can activate viruses that are dormant in in lung tissue cells, researchers have found.

Light source discovery 'challenges basic assumption' of physics

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:20 AM PST

A widely-held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research. The study found that the normal direct correspondence between the bandwidths of the current source and emitted radiation can be broken. This was achieved by extracting narrowband radiation with high efficiency, without making the oscillation of the current narrowband.

Protein research: the computer as microscope

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:16 AM PST

Using a combination of infrared spectroscopy and computer simulation, researchers have gained new insights into the workings of protein switches. With high temporal and spatial resolution, they verified that a magnesium atom contributes significantly to switching the so-called G-proteins on and off.

UV light for producing customized surfaces

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:16 AM PST

Scientists have developed a new process to structure surfaces and to apply or detach functional molecules. They use UV light for the formation or breaking of so-called disulfide bridges, i.e. bonds of sulfur atoms. Both photodynamic reactions allow for a temporally and spatially controlled and reversible modification of the surface and, hence, can be used to produce functional interfaces.

Certain anti-influenza compounds also inhibit Zika virus infection, Researchers find

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

Three anti-influenza compounds effectively inhibit Zika virus infection in human cells, scientists have discovered. These results provide the foundation for development of the broad-spectrum cell-directed antivirals or their combinations for treatment of Zika and other emerging viral diseases.

New research study creates new opportunities for treating brain diseases

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

Immunotherapy has proven to be effective against many serious diseases. But to treat diseases in the brain, the antibodies must first get past the obstacle of the blood-brain barrier. In a new study, a research group describes their development of a new antibody design that increases brain uptake of antibodies almost 100-fold.

Atrial fibrillation more prevalent in dialysis patients than expected

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

Atrial fibrillation, which is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is an important risk factor for strokes. A multi-centre study shows that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in haemodialysis patients in Vienna is significantly higher than previously thought. Moreover, only half of the patients affected are treated with an anticoagulant.

First humans arrived in North America a lot earlier than believed

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

The timing of the first entry of humans into North America across the Bering Strait has now been set back 10,000 years, scientists report.

Computational modeling reveals anatomical distribution of drag on downhill skiers

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

Minimizing air resistance and friction with snow is key to elite performance in downhill skiing. Experiments in wind tunnels have revealed the total drag experienced by skiers, but have not provided precise data on which parts of the body cause the most air resistance when adopting the full-tuck position.

Benzodiazepines, related drugs increase stroke risk among persons with Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

The use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like drugs was associated with a 20 per cent increased risk of stroke among persons with Alzheimer's disease, shows a recent study. Benzodiazepines were associated with a similar risk of stroke as benzodiazepine-like drugs.

One in five young people lose sleep over social media

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

One in five young people regularly wake up in the night to send or check messages on social media, according to new research. This night-time activity is making teenagers three times more likely to feel constantly tired at school than their peers who do not log on at night, and could be affecting their happiness and wellbeing.

'Baby talk' in marmoset monkeys

Posted: 16 Jan 2017 06:14 AM PST

Neuroscientists have investigated the development of vocalization in young monkeys, and have summarized their findings in a new report.

Diversification key to resilient fishing communities

Posted: 14 Jan 2017 08:04 AM PST

Fishing communities can survive, and even thrive, as fish abundance and market prices shift if they can catch a variety of species and nimbly move from one fishery to the next, a new study finds.

Chemical-biological strategy for microRNA target identification

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 12:56 PM PST

A research team reports photo-clickable miRNAs as probes for intracellular target identification of miRNAs.