الخميس، 27 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

Saving lives using new stent graft design

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:43 PM PDT

Patients suffering from aneurysms that extend from their chest into their groin may be helped by a new stent graft, thanks to collaborative research. Mechanical engineers fluid flow modeling "helped validate that the configuration is delivering more well developed blood flow with the design," according to a vascular surgeon.

HIV testing among older adults is declining, despite CDC recommendation

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:43 PM PDT

In 2006 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that most doctors should automatically screen all their patients, including older adults, for HIV even if they don't exhibit any symptoms. New research finds that despite this recommendation, testing among older adults has largely fallen over time.

Immunotherapy agent benefits patients with drug-resistant multiple myeloma

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

In its first clinical trial, a breakthrough antibody therapy produced at least partial remissions in a third of patients with multiple myeloma who had exhausted multiple prior treatments, investigators report.

Life expectancy climbs worldwide but people spend more years living with illness and disability

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Global life expectancy has risen by more than six years since 1990 as healthy life expectancy grows; ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, and stroke cause the most health loss around the world.

New approach to tackling uncontrolled high blood pressure shows significant results

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Scientists have successfully improved blood pressure control among patients with severe intolerance to antihypertensive medication -- by using medicines in unconventional ways and treating patients with a 'stepped care' approach (where the most effective yet least intensive treatment is delivered to patients first).

Firstborn women more likely to be overweight/obese as adults than second-born sisters

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Firstborn women are more likely to be overweight/obese as adults than their second-born sisters, finds the largest study of its kind in women.

Shift focus from calorie counting to nutritional value for heart health, say experts

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

It's time to stop counting the calories, and instead start promoting the nutritional value of foods if we are to rapidly cut illness and death from cardiovascular disease and curb the rising tide of obesity, say experts.

Survivors of childhood cancer have high-risk of recurrent stroke

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 01:15 PM PDT

A new study shows that childhood cancer survivors suffering one stroke have double the risk of suffering a second stroke, when compared with non-cancer stroke survivors.

Stiffer Breast Tissue in Obese Women Promotes Tumors

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:42 AM PDT

Women who are obese have a higher risk and a worse prognosis for breast cancer, but the reasons why remain unclear. A new study explains how obesity changes the consistency of breast tissue in ways that are similar to tumors, thereby promoting disease.

Colorful potatoes may pack powerful cancer prevention punch

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Compounds found in purple potatoes may help kill colon cancer stem cells and limit the spread of the cancer, according to a team of researchers.

New 'mutation-tracking' blood test could predict breast cancer relapse months in advance

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a blood test for breast cancer able to identify which patients will suffer a relapse after treatment, months before tumors are visible on hospital scans.The test can uncover small numbers of residual cancer cells that have resisted therapy by detecting cancer DNA in the bloodstream.

Capturing cancer: 3-D model of solid tumors explains cancer evolution

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:57 AM PDT

Researchers have developed the first model of solid tumors that reflects both their three-dimensional shape and genetic evolution. The new model explains why cancer cells have a surprising number of genetic mutations in common, how driver mutations spread through the whole tumor and how drug resistance evolves.

Jammed up cellular highways may initiate dementia and ALS

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

Researchers say they have discovered some of the first steps in how a very common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

Hypoallergenic parks: Coming soon?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

Granada, Spain's climate and layout is like that of many cities in the Mediterranean area, which has the highest occurrence of pollen allergies in the world. The researchers hope their efforts will lead to fantastic urban green spaces that don't cause allergic reactions for 30 percent of the city's population.

Common ‘heart attack’ blood test may predict future hypertension

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 09:56 AM PDT

Analysis of blood samples from more than 5,000 people suggests that a more sensitive version of a blood test long used to verify heart muscle damage from heart attacks could also identify people on their way to developing hypertension well before the so-called silent killer shows up on a blood pressure machine.

Embryonic stem cells controlled with light

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Researchers have for the first time developed a method to precisely control embryonic stem cell differentiation with beams of light, enabling them to be transformed into neurons in response to a precise external cue.

Trash or treasure? Repurposing would-be wasted food to feed the hungry and create jobs

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

A new model for recovering would-be wasted -- or surplus -- food and repurposing it to feed hungry people, generate revenue and even create jobs was recently piloted in West Philadelphia. The report projects the amount of food that could be saved if the program was replicated nationally.

Low-level arsenic exposure before birth associated with early puberty and obesity

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Female mice exposed in utero, or in the womb, to low levels of arsenic through drinking water displayed signs of early puberty and became obese as adults, according to scientists. The finding is significant because the exposure level of 10 parts per billion used in the study is the current US Environmental Protection Agency standard, or maximum allowable amount, for arsenic in drinking water.

Tackling the root cause of cystic fibrosis

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) have added years to the lives of thousands of Americans. But they can be difficult to administer, and most don't fix the underlying cause. Scientists have now found that a small molecule, when tested in yeast, can substitute for a protein and restore a key cellular function related to those missing in people with CF and similar conditions.

Cannabis use may influence cortical maturation in adolescent males

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:36 AM PDT

Male teens who experiment with cannabis before age 16, and have a high genetic risk for schizophrenia, show a different brain development trajectory than low risk peers who use cannabis.

Fertilization discovery: Do sperm wield tiny harpoons?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:22 AM PDT

Could the sperm harpoon the egg to facilitate fertilization? That's the intriguing possibility raised by the discovery that a protein within the head of the sperm forms spiky filaments, suggesting that these tiny filaments may lash together the sperm and its target.

Many pregnant women have insufficient iodine; may impair baby's neurological development

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:21 AM PDT

New research has found that pregnant women in Sweden had inadequate levels of iodine in their diets. Proper iodine nutrition is necessary for neurological development of the fetus. Iodine is an element that is involved in the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need about 50% more iodine in the diets, and WHO recommends a total daily iodine intake of 250 ?g/d for pregnant and lactating women. Medical evidence confirms that moderate to severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may impair the baby's neurological development.

New optical method promises faster, more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

A new optical method promising faster, more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer is reported in a new article. The researchers used spatial light interference microscopy to obtain quantitative data for tissue analysis, in place of manual inspection.

Millions of plastic particles exist in cosmetic products

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

Everyday cosmetic and cleaning products contain huge quantities of plastic particles, which are released to the environment and could be harmful to marine life, according to a new study.

Obesity-related causes of stillbirth detailed

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Obese women are nearly twice as likely as their lean counterparts to have stillborn babies for several specific, potentially preventable medical reasons, a new analysis reveals. Placental diseases and hypertension were the most common causes of stillbirth among obese women, according to the study.

Glass of water before each meal could help in weight reduction

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Researchers have shown that drinking 500ml of water at half an hour before eating main meals may help obese adults to lose weight. They believe that the simple intervention could be hugely beneficial, and be easily promoted by healthcare professionals and through public health campaigns.

High use of alternative medicine in senior oncology patients

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 06:30 AM PDT

Many seniors with cancer are also using complementary or alternative medicines that could interfere with their cancer treatment.

Sobering Statistics on Physical Inactivity in the U.S.

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 06:30 AM PDT

Approximately 36 percent of adults in the U.S. do not engage in any leisure-time physical activity. Lack of physical activity accounts for 22 percent of coronary heart disease, 22 percent of colon cancer, 18 percent of osteoporotic fractures, 12 percent of diabetes and hypertension, and 5 percent of breast cancer.

Bright screens at night imperil sleep of young teens

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 06:26 AM PDT

A new study looked at the effect of light exposure at night -- like that from phones or tablets -- on the biology of teen sleep. The researchers found that children in early to middle puberty were especially vulnerable to suppression of a hormone key to sleep timing.

The fear of trying new foods may have negative dietary implications

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:22 AM PDT

Neophobic children have a lower quality index in terms of the Mediterranean diet. Food neophobia is the fear of or refusal to try new foods. This is a typical feature in infant development. Nevertheless, it may end up becoming a habit even in adulthood. A study conducted among children between 8 and 16 has concluded that the neophobic participants have a lower quality index in terms of the Mediterranean diet and, what is more, they have greater anxiety and lower self-esteem.

Robotically steered flexible needles navigate in tissue

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

Robotically steering flexible needles can reach their intended target in tissue with sub-millimetre level accuracy. A major advantage of steering flexible needles is that one can avoid obstacles or sensitive tissues and can re-orient the path of the needle in real time as you insert the needle.

How do harmful chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells obtain their nutrients?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

Medical researchers have found a novel nutrient uptake process that maintains the activity of murine chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of nutrient uptake decreased CML stem cell activity. Certain nutrients support CML stem cell activity in vivo, thus pointing towards a potential therapeutic target for CML therapy.

Depression: Evidence of serotonin signal transduction disturbances

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:21 AM PDT

Depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders. Over the last few years, molecular brain imaging using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has helped us to identify important mechanisms involved in the development and treatment of these disorders, particularly those associated with the serotonin neurotransmitter system.

Few gay teenage boys get tested for HIV

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:17 AM PDT

HIV infections are rising for young men who have sex with men, but only one in five gay male teens have ever been tested for HIV, reports a new study. The reason is teens don't know where to get an HIV test and worry about being recognized at a testing site. Testing is critical because it can help those who are positive receive lifesaving medical care and prevent them from transmitting the virus.

New cardiovascular disease death rates show stark inequalities between European countries

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:59 PM PDT

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the most common cause of death in Europe, resulting in over four million deaths a year (45 percent of all deaths) according to the latest available. Although deaths from cardiovascular disease are declining in most of Europe, there are large inequalities between European countries, with higher death rates seen in Eastern Europe.

Project in West Africa sees dramatic drop in TB death rates

Posted: 25 Aug 2015 05:58 PM PDT

Doctors in Togo, West Africa have seen a 10 percent drop in tuberculosis death rates after redesigning diagnosis and treatment services in one of the country's health districts.