الخميس، 27 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Can't put your phone down? Are You a Nomophobe?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:43 PM PDT

Rsearchers have developed a questionnaire to help you determine if you suffer from nomophobia or a fear of being without your mobile phone.

Saving lives using new stent graft design

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:43 PM PDT

Patients suffering from aneurysms that extend from their chest into their groin may be helped by a new stent graft, thanks to collaborative research. Mechanical engineers fluid flow modeling "helped validate that the configuration is delivering more well developed blood flow with the design," according to a vascular surgeon.

HIV testing among older adults is declining, despite CDC recommendation

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:43 PM PDT

In 2006 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that most doctors should automatically screen all their patients, including older adults, for HIV even if they don't exhibit any symptoms. New research finds that despite this recommendation, testing among older adults has largely fallen over time.

Immunotherapy agent benefits patients with drug-resistant multiple myeloma

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

In its first clinical trial, a breakthrough antibody therapy produced at least partial remissions in a third of patients with multiple myeloma who had exhausted multiple prior treatments, investigators report.

Life expectancy climbs worldwide but people spend more years living with illness and disability

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Global life expectancy has risen by more than six years since 1990 as healthy life expectancy grows; ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, and stroke cause the most health loss around the world.

New approach to tackling uncontrolled high blood pressure shows significant results

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Scientists have successfully improved blood pressure control among patients with severe intolerance to antihypertensive medication -- by using medicines in unconventional ways and treating patients with a 'stepped care' approach (where the most effective yet least intensive treatment is delivered to patients first).

Firstborn women more likely to be overweight/obese as adults than second-born sisters

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

Firstborn women are more likely to be overweight/obese as adults than their second-born sisters, finds the largest study of its kind in women.

Shift focus from calorie counting to nutritional value for heart health, say experts

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 05:42 PM PDT

It's time to stop counting the calories, and instead start promoting the nutritional value of foods if we are to rapidly cut illness and death from cardiovascular disease and curb the rising tide of obesity, say experts.

Survivors of childhood cancer have high-risk of recurrent stroke

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 01:15 PM PDT

A new study shows that childhood cancer survivors suffering one stroke have double the risk of suffering a second stroke, when compared with non-cancer stroke survivors.

Chemical sampling interface features simplicity, speed

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 01:15 PM PDT

In mere seconds, a device that can identify and characterize a solid or liquid sample.

New survey on Americans' views on papal encyclical on climate change

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 01:15 PM PDT

A new national survey found that fewer than one in three Americans, and 40 percent of Catholics, are aware of Pope Francis's efforts to publicize global warming as a priority issue for the Catholic Church.

Meerkat matriarch carries many burdens

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 01:08 PM PDT

The dominant matriarchs of meerkat society carry a heavy burden. Not only are these females stressed from having to constantly scold and cajole the rowdy members of the tribe to maintain their perch as the primary breeders and enforcers of the clan, they apparently host more parasites as well.

New affordable tool to test Tropical Forest carbon stocks

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 12:14 PM PDT

Environmental scientists have developed an affordable technique to help provide evidence of the carbon-saving benefits of tropical forest conservation.

Stiffer Breast Tissue in Obese Women Promotes Tumors

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:42 AM PDT

Women who are obese have a higher risk and a worse prognosis for breast cancer, but the reasons why remain unclear. A new study explains how obesity changes the consistency of breast tissue in ways that are similar to tumors, thereby promoting disease.

Colorful potatoes may pack powerful cancer prevention punch

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Compounds found in purple potatoes may help kill colon cancer stem cells and limit the spread of the cancer, according to a team of researchers.

Family farm managers earn less, but gain 'emotional' wealth

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

After hours harvesting forage, managing livestock and milking cows, new agricultural economic research shows family members who work on the family dairy farm make $22,000 less annually than comparable hired managers, but are handsomely compensated with 'socioemotional' wealth.

Self-control saps memory, study says

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

You're about to switch lanes on a busy road when you realize there's a car in your blind spot. You have to put a stop to your lane change -- and quickly. A new study suggests that this type of scenario makes a person less likely to remember what halted the action -- for example, the make and model of the car in the blind spot.

Unusual use of blue pigment found in ancient mummy portraits

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

In an unexpected discovery, a research team of scientists and art conservators has found an unusual use of the pigment Egyptian blue in Roman-era Egyptian mummy portraits. No blue is visible to the naked eye in the paintings, but when the researchers used analytical tools for an in-depth study, they discovered the ancient artists used the pigment as material for underdrawings and for modulating color -- a finding never before documented.

Cellular contamination pathway for plutonium, other heavy elements, identified

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Scientists have reported a major advance in understanding the biological chemistry of radioactive metals, opening up new avenues of research into strategies for remedial action in the event of possible human exposure to nuclear contaminants.

DNA sequencing used to identify thousands of fish eggs

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Using DNA sequencing, researchers have accurately painted a clear picture of fish spawning activities in a marine protected area and have created a baseline for continuing studies on the effects of climate variability on fish populations. Researchers collected 260 samples off the Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier over a two-year period and used DNA barcoding to accurately identify over 13,000 fish eggs.

Botanists conduct first large-scale genetic study of marijuana, hemp

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

A new study is providing a clearer picture of the evolutionary history and genetic organization of cannabis, a step that could have agricultural, medical and legal implications for this valuable crop.

New 'mutation-tracking' blood test could predict breast cancer relapse months in advance

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a blood test for breast cancer able to identify which patients will suffer a relapse after treatment, months before tumors are visible on hospital scans.The test can uncover small numbers of residual cancer cells that have resisted therapy by detecting cancer DNA in the bloodstream.

Paralysis: Primates recover better than rodents

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 11:41 AM PDT

Monkeys and humans exhibit greater motor recovery than rats after similar spinal cord injury, according to a new study.

Mechanism behind 'strange' earthquakes discovered

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:57 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered the mechanism that generates earthquakes that occur away from tectonic plate boundaries.

Methanotrophs: Could bacteria help protect our environment?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:57 AM PDT

New insight into methanotrophs, bacteria that can oxidise methane, may help us develop an array of biotechnological applications that exploit methane and protect our environment from this potent greenhouse gas.

Capturing cancer: 3-D model of solid tumors explains cancer evolution

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:57 AM PDT

Researchers have developed the first model of solid tumors that reflects both their three-dimensional shape and genetic evolution. The new model explains why cancer cells have a surprising number of genetic mutations in common, how driver mutations spread through the whole tumor and how drug resistance evolves.

Antimatter catches a wave

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

A new study has demonstrated a new, efficient way to accelerate positrons, the antimatter opposites of electrons. The method may help boost the energy and shrink the size of future linear particle colliders -- powerful accelerators that could be used to unravel the properties of nature's fundamental building blocks.

Jammed up cellular highways may initiate dementia and ALS

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

Researchers say they have discovered some of the first steps in how a very common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

Searching big data faster

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

For more than a decade, gene sequencers have been improving more rapidly than the computers required to make sense of their outputs. Searching for DNA sequences in existing genomic databases can already take hours, and the problem is likely to get worse. Recently, scientists have been investigating techniques to make biological and chemical data easier to analyze by, in some sense, compressing it.

Hypoallergenic parks: Coming soon?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

Granada, Spain's climate and layout is like that of many cities in the Mediterranean area, which has the highest occurrence of pollen allergies in the world. The researchers hope their efforts will lead to fantastic urban green spaces that don't cause allergic reactions for 30 percent of the city's population.

Cells cling and spiral 'like vines' in first 3-D tissue scaffold for plants

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

New cost-effective material which mimics natural 'extracellular matrix' has allowed scientists to capture previously unseen behavior in individual plant cells, including new shapes and interactions. New methods highlight potential developments for plant tissue engineering.

Wide-ranging networking boosts employee creativity

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 10:20 AM PDT

Companies can promote creativity in employees by encouraging them to network beyond their immediate business networks, according to a new study.

Common ‘heart attack’ blood test may predict future hypertension

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 09:56 AM PDT

Analysis of blood samples from more than 5,000 people suggests that a more sensitive version of a blood test long used to verify heart muscle damage from heart attacks could also identify people on their way to developing hypertension well before the so-called silent killer shows up on a blood pressure machine.

Lab experiments question popular measure of ancient ocean temperatures

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

The membranes of sediment-entombed archaea are an increasingly popular way to determine ocean surface temperatures back to the age of the dinosaurs. But new results show that changing oxygen can affect the reading by as much as 21 degrees C.

Embryonic stem cells controlled with light

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Researchers have for the first time developed a method to precisely control embryonic stem cell differentiation with beams of light, enabling them to be transformed into neurons in response to a precise external cue.

Something to crow about: New Caledonian crows show strong evidence of social learning

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Among our greatest achievements as humans, some might say, is our cumulative technological culture -- the tool-using acumen that is passed from one generation to the next. As the implements we use on a daily basis are modified and refined over time, they seem to evolve right along with us.

Waste paper could make summer grilling more environmentally friendly

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Summertime is waning, and that means the end of backyard barbecues is almost upon us. That also means an end to dousing charcoal briquettes with lighter fluid. Reducing the use of lighter fluid might not be a bad thing, as many of those products are made from crude oil and emit potentially harmful compounds when lit. Now, researchers have developed a waste-paper-based, environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative.

Trash or treasure? Repurposing would-be wasted food to feed the hungry and create jobs

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

A new model for recovering would-be wasted -- or surplus -- food and repurposing it to feed hungry people, generate revenue and even create jobs was recently piloted in West Philadelphia. The report projects the amount of food that could be saved if the program was replicated nationally.

Low-level arsenic exposure before birth associated with early puberty and obesity

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Female mice exposed in utero, or in the womb, to low levels of arsenic through drinking water displayed signs of early puberty and became obese as adults, according to scientists. The finding is significant because the exposure level of 10 parts per billion used in the study is the current US Environmental Protection Agency standard, or maximum allowable amount, for arsenic in drinking water.

Sir Elton John is the inspiration behind the name of a new coral reef crustacean species

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

An American coral reef scientist found a small shrimp-like crustacean with a greatly enlarged appendage reminiscent of the Elton John character in the movie 'Tommy.' Discovered while working in the remote coral reefs of Raja Ampat, Indonesia, Dr. Thomas said about the species: 'When I first saw this amazing amphipod I immediately thought of Elton John as the Pinball Wizard in the movie.'

Fair sharing of flight delays among airlines

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

A study presents a new method for dealing with delays that, they conclude, keeps system-wide delays virtually constant while distributing delays among airlines more evenly. Specifically, it lets airlines distribute delays among themselves more evenly by allowing them to swap schedule slots with each other. The result, the researchers say, is more fair, without sacrificing efficiency.

Tackling the root cause of cystic fibrosis

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:38 AM PDT

Treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) have added years to the lives of thousands of Americans. But they can be difficult to administer, and most don't fix the underlying cause. Scientists have now found that a small molecule, when tested in yeast, can substitute for a protein and restore a key cellular function related to those missing in people with CF and similar conditions.

Self-healing material could plug life-threatening holes in spacecraft

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:36 AM PDT

For astronauts living in space with objects zooming around them at 22,000 miles per hour like rogue super-bullets, it's good to have a backup plan. Although shields and fancy maneuvers could help protect space structures, scientists have to prepare for the possibility that debris could pierce a vessel. One team reports on a new material that heals itself within seconds and could prevent structural penetration from being catastrophic.

Post-hurricane recovery analysis

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:36 AM PDT

Ten years after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated the Gulf Coast, researchers have analyzed and documented the recovery effort for the state. Initial reports on housing, infrastructure and economic development have been released this week.

Earth's mineralogy unique in the cosmos

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:36 AM PDT

New research predicts that Earth has more than 1,500 undiscovered minerals and that the exact mineral diversity of our planet is unique and could not be duplicated anywhere in the cosmos.

Cannabis use may influence cortical maturation in adolescent males

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 08:36 AM PDT

Male teens who experiment with cannabis before age 16, and have a high genetic risk for schizophrenia, show a different brain development trajectory than low risk peers who use cannabis.

Fertilization discovery: Do sperm wield tiny harpoons?

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:22 AM PDT

Could the sperm harpoon the egg to facilitate fertilization? That's the intriguing possibility raised by the discovery that a protein within the head of the sperm forms spiky filaments, suggesting that these tiny filaments may lash together the sperm and its target.

Many pregnant women have insufficient iodine; may impair baby's neurological development

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:21 AM PDT

New research has found that pregnant women in Sweden had inadequate levels of iodine in their diets. Proper iodine nutrition is necessary for neurological development of the fetus. Iodine is an element that is involved in the production of thyroid hormones. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need about 50% more iodine in the diets, and WHO recommends a total daily iodine intake of 250 ?g/d for pregnant and lactating women. Medical evidence confirms that moderate to severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may impair the baby's neurological development.

New optical method promises faster, more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

A new optical method promising faster, more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer is reported in a new article. The researchers used spatial light interference microscopy to obtain quantitative data for tissue analysis, in place of manual inspection.

Twin Jet Nebula: The wings of the butterfly

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

The shimmering colours visible in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image show off the remarkable complexity of the Twin Jet Nebula. The new image highlights the nebula's shells and its knots of expanding gas in striking detail. Two iridescent lobes of material stretch outwards from a central star system. Within these lobes two huge jets of gas are streaming from the star system at speeds in excess of one million kilometers per hour.

Millions of plastic particles exist in cosmetic products

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

Everyday cosmetic and cleaning products contain huge quantities of plastic particles, which are released to the environment and could be harmful to marine life, according to a new study.

Even cockatoos draw conclusions

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

If there is a certain pool of choices and we can exclude A and B, we can easily deduce that C must be the appropriate choice. The ability of animals to be able to solve this has been the focus of many studies in recent comparative cognitive research. A team of researchers have now found a method to test if Goffin cockatoos have the ability to infer by exclusion.

Neurobiology: Tuning of timing in auditory axons

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

A team has shown that the axons of auditory neurons in the brainstem which respond to low and high-frequency sounds differ in their morphology, and that these variations correlate with differences in the speed of signal conduction.

The great escape: Why awareness of mortality can be bad for health

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:20 AM PDT

People with low self-esteem use a variety of escape mechanisms to avoid thinking about their own mortality, new research reveals.

New fungi behind emerging wheat disease

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered three new fungi as they unravel the mystery cause of the emerging wheat disease white grain disorder.

Earth's extremes point the way to extraterrestrial life

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Astrobiologists draw upon what is known about Earth's most extreme lifeforms and the environments of Mars and Titan, Saturn's moon, to paint a clearer picture of what life on other planets could be like.

Where bread began: Ancient tools used to reconstruct -- and taste -- prehistoric cuisine

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

A group of intrepid Israeli researchers recently went back to the dawn of the Stone Age to make lunch. Using 12,500-year-old conical mortars carved into bedrock, they reconstructed how their ancient ancestors processed wild barley to produce groat meals, as well as a delicacy that might be termed 'proto-pita' -- small loaves of coal-baked, unleavened bread. In so doing, they re-enacted a critical moment in the rise of civilization.

Obesity-related causes of stillbirth detailed

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Obese women are nearly twice as likely as their lean counterparts to have stillborn babies for several specific, potentially preventable medical reasons, a new analysis reveals. Placental diseases and hypertension were the most common causes of stillbirth among obese women, according to the study.

Can't count sheep? You could have aphantasia

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

If counting sheep is an abstract concept, or you are unable to visualize the faces of loved ones, you could have aphantasia -- a newly defined condition to describe people who are born without a 'mind's eye'.

Glass of water before each meal could help in weight reduction

Posted: 26 Aug 2015 07:16 AM PDT

Researchers have shown that drinking 500ml of water at half an hour before eating main meals may help obese adults to lose weight. They believe that the simple intervention could be hugely beneficial, and be easily promoted by healthcare professionals and through public health campaigns.