الأربعاء، 19 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Harnessing the butterfly effect

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:38 PM PDT

New research shows how to directly harness the atmosphere's elephantine memory to produce temperature forecasts that are somewhat more accurate than conventional numerical computer models. This new method shows that the so-called pause in global warming since 1998 can be well explained with the help of historical atmospheric data.

Scientists report success using zebrafish embryos to identify potential new diabetes drugs

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:38 PM PDT

In experiments with 500,000 genetically engineered zebrafish embryos, scientists report they have developed a potentially better and more accurate way to screen for useful drugs, and they have used it to identify 24 drug candidates that increase the number of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Setting ground rules for nanotechnology research

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:35 PM PDT

In two new studies, researchers from across the United States have begun to design the framework on which to build the emerging field of nanoinformatics -- the combination of nanoscale research and informatics.

Agricultural intervention improves HIV outcomes

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:35 PM PDT

A multifaceted farming intervention can reduce food insecurity while improving HIV outcomes in patients in Kenya, according to a randomized, controlled trial.

Toxic chemical discovered in birds outside of Superfund site

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:35 PM PDT

A contaminated mixture called Aroclor 1268 has spread beyond a former chemical plant, now a Superfund site, near Brunswick, scientists have discovered. The findings indicate that the least tern ingests the contaminant when it forages on fish; because shore birds are at the top of the food chain, they are important indicators of the health of coastal environments, researchers say.

The Tree of Life may be a bush

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:35 PM PDT

New species evolve whenever a lineage splits off into several. Because of this, the kinship between species is often described in terms of a 'tree of life,' where every branch constitutes a species. Now, researchers have found that evolution is more complex than this model would have it, and that the tree is actually more akin to a bush.

Shorter women have shorter pregnancies, study shows

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 12:35 PM PDT

Shorter mothers have shorter pregnancies, smaller babies, and higher risk for a preterm birth. Investigators found that a mother's height directly influences her risk for preterm birth. They also found that maternal height, which is determined by genetic factors, helped shape the fetal environment, influencing the length of pregnancy and frequency of prematurity. In contrast, birth length and birth weight are mainly influenced by transmitted genes.

Hot chilli may unlock a new treatment for obesity

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:27 AM PDT

A high-fat diet may impair important receptors located in the stomach that signal fullness, researchers have discovered. They investigated the association between hot chilli pepper receptors (TRPV1) in the stomach and the feeling of fullness, in laboratory studies, suggesting that their work will inform further studies and the development of new therapies.

Early inflammatory response paralyzes T cells

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:26 AM PDT

In a discovery that is likely to rewrite immunology text books, researchers have found that early exposure to inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 2, can 'paralyze' CD4 T cells, immune components that help orchestrate the body's response to pathogens and other invaders.

Finding biomarkers for early lung cancer diagnosis

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:26 AM PDT

Despite decades of warnings about smoking, lung cancer is still the second-most common cancer and the leading cause of death from cancer in the US. Researchers are trying to change that, by identifying biomarkers that could be the basis of early tests for lung cancer.

Engineers identify how to keep surfaces dry underwater for months

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:26 AM PDT

Imagine staying dry underwater for months. Engineers have examined a variety of surfaces that can do just that -- and they know why. They have identified the ideal 'roughness' needed in a surface's texture to keep it dry for a long time when submerged in water. The valleys in the surface roughness typically need to be less than one micron in width. That's really small -- but these nanoscopic valleys have macroscopic impact.

Nicotine changes marijuana's effect on the brain

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:24 AM PDT

How scientists study the effects of marijuana on the brain is changing. Until recently marijuana research largely excluded tobacco users from its participant pool, but scientists have found reason to abandon this practice, uncovering significant differences in the brains of individuals who use both tobacco and marijuana and the brains of those who only use marijuana.

Women choose contraception based on relationships not just pregnancy desires

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:24 AM PDT

Women's contraceptive choices are more often driven by current relationships and sexual activity than by long-term pregnancy intentions, according to researchers.

As US border enforcement increases, Mexican migration patterns shift, new research shows

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:24 AM PDT

When enforcement increases along the US-Mexican border, fewer Mexican immigrants cross into the United States, both legally and illegally. But increased enforcement has another effect, new research shows -- it alters traditional settlement patterns and leads more Mexican immigrants to settle in states beyond the borders.

Biophysics: Formation of swarms in nanosystems

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 11:24 AM PDT

One of the striking features of self-organization in biomolecular systems is the capacity of assemblies of filamentous particles for synchronous motion. Physicists now provide new insights into how such movements are coordinated.

Code Speedup Strengthens Researchers’ Grasp of Neutrons

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:18 AM PDT

Scientists have simulated clusters of neutrons called "neutron drops" to understand their properties better. The ab initio calculations, or calculations based on fundamental forces and principles, were performed on the Titan supercomputer. Leveraging Titan's massive memory and computing power, the team was able to determine the ground-state energies and other properties of systems of up to 40 neutrons.

Researcher looks through the noise to discover potential risks from jet fuel

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:18 AM PDT

Jet fuel, when combined with sustained noise, may cause brain-related injury and lead to multiple conditions. Clinical conditions such as anxiety, depression, sleep disorders and post-traumatic stress could be attributed, in part, to hydrocarbon-related disruptions in brain function, a factor previously overlooked during diagnoses, say authors of a new report.

Amazon fire risk linked to devastating hurricanes

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:18 AM PDT

Researchers have uncovered a remarkably strong link between high wildfire risk in the Amazon basin and the devastating hurricanes that ravage North Atlantic shorelines. The climate scientists' findings appear near the 10th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina's calamitous August 2005 landfall at New Orleans.

Expression of a single gene lets scientists easily grow hepatitis C virus in the lab

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:18 AM PDT

In devising a method to readily grow hepatitis C in the laboratory, scientists might have overcome a major hurdle for basic research into the virus and the disease it causes.

Ocean holds the key to superior nutrition and sustainability

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:17 AM PDT

Although 97 percent of the earth's surface water is made up of oceans, humans use only a small percentage of the sea for food. Instead most people, especially those in Western cultures, rely heavily on land-based agriculture for food that result in deforestation, soil degradation, greenhouse gases, and depletion of freshwater supplies. Experts point out that oceans are an untapped resource for food that is not only more eco-friendly but, in some cases, more nutritious than land-based foods.

Vision of immune cells rallying to destroy invaders captured for the first time

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:15 AM PDT

The intricate interplay between immune cells working to defeat infection has been seen and photographed for the first time. Researchers used state-of-the-art microscopy to painstakingly capture images of the interactions of three crucial types of immune cells rallying to destroy herpes simplex virus.

Gut microbes linked to major autoimmune eye disease

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:15 AM PDT

One major cause of human blindness is autoimmune uveitis, which is triggered by the activation of T cells, but exactly how and where the T cells become activated in the first place has been a long-standing mystery. A study reveals that gut microbes produce a molecule that mimics a retinal protein, which most likely activates the T cells responsible for the disease.

How an emerging anti-resistance antibiotic targets the bacterial membrane

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 10:15 AM PDT

Scientists are planning for a future in which superbugs gain the upper hand against our current arsenal of antibiotics. One emerging class of drug candidates, called AMLPs (antimicrobial lipopeptides), shows promise, and a study ixplains why: they selectively kill bacterial cells, while sparing mammalian host cells, by clumping together into microscopic balls that stick to the bacterial membrane -- a complex structure that will be slower to mutate and thus resist drugs.

Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:22 AM PDT

Students who have used electronic cigarettes by the time they start ninth grade are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within the next year, according to a new study.

Surge in heroin use tied to prescription opioid abuse

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:20 AM PDT

Heroin use has increased 63 percent over the last 10 years in the United States, experts report. That increase is closely tied to the growing abuse of prescription opioids such as oxycodone (Percocet), hydrocodone (Vicodin) and codeine. An alarming 45 percent of Americans addicted to heroin are also addicted to prescription opioids.

Frst demonstration of matter wave technique that could cool molecules

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:18 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated for the first time a new laser cooling method, based upon the interference of matter waves, that could be used to cool molecules.

Anxious? Depressed? Blame it on your middle-management position

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:17 AM PDT

Individuals near the middle of the social hierarchy suffer higher rates of depression and anxiety than those at the top or bottom, according to researchers. Nearly twice the number of supervisors and managers reported they suffered from anxiety compared to workers. Symptoms of depression were reported by 18 percent of supervisors and managers compared to 12 percent for workers.

Patients with immediate medical needs tend to perceive doctors as emotionless, study finds

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:17 AM PDT

The greater patients' need for medical care, the more likely patients will view their doctors as 'empty vessels,' devoid of emotions or personal lives of their own; at the same time, those patients expect their physicians to be able to contain the patients' emotions and experiences, new research shows.

Solar System formation don't mean a thing without that spin

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:17 AM PDT

New work provides surprising new details about the trigger that may have started the earliest phases of planet formation in our solar system.

Newly discovered molecular feedback process may protect the brain against Alzheimer's

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:17 AM PDT

Researchers have identified within neurons a series of molecular interactions -- known as a pathway -- that can dampen the production of the Alzheimer's protein amyloid-?. These results suggest a new route in the search for therapies for this degenerative disease.

Increased risk of depression for mothers undergoing fertility treatment

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:05 AM PDT

Women giving birth after undergoing fertility treatment face an increased risk of depression compared to women ending up not having a child following fertility treatment, according to new research. According to the researchers, this has key implications for fertility treatment in future.

Drug helps patients with diabetes lose weight

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:05 AM PDT

Among overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes, daily injection of the diabetes drug liraglutide with a modified insulin pen device, in addition to diet and exercise, resulted in greater weight loss over 56 weeks compared with placebo, according to a study.

E-cigarettes could have health impacts in developing world, research suggests

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:05 AM PDT

Two researchers are urging greater regulatory oversight of e-cigarettes in poorer countries, where sales of the devices are growing. Public awareness of the devices is high in some developing countries. In the recent International Tobacco Control survey, 34 percent of adults in Mexico, 35 percent in Brazil and 62 percent in Malaysia said they had heard about the devices or tried them. In some of the poorest regions of the world -- notably Africa and South Asia -- there is little known about e-cigarette use, though these are vast potential markets, the authors wrote.

Sepsis care guidance: Nationwide hospital requirements

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:05 AM PDT

As hospitals across America brace for rigorous mandates for care of septic patients that will be adopted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in October, a new review unveils research-based guidance to improve compliance when treating this common and deadly syndrome.

Fossil study: Dogs evolved with climate change

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 09:05 AM PDT

A cooling, drying climate over the last 40 million years turned North America from a warm and wooded place into the drier, open plains we know today. A new study shows how dogs evolved in response to those changes, demonstrating that predators are sensitive to climate change because it alters the hunting opportunities in their habitat.

Liver damage in hepatitis C patients significantly underestimated, underreported

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

The number of hepatitis C patients suffering from advanced liver damage may be grossly underestimated and underdiagnosed, according to a study. The findings were the result of a study of nearly 10,000 patients suffering from hepatitis C, and could have a significant effect on patient care and healthcare policy regarding the chronic disease.

Researchers report on Hurricane Sandy's mental health impact on older adults

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

Strong neighborhood relationships reduced the incidence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among older adults exposed to Hurricane Sandy, the superstorm that devastated the Northeast United States. These findings provide new information about how the neighborhoods where older adults live can be bolstered in the face of natural disasters.

New aortic heart valve does not require open surgery

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

A new aortic heart valve does not require open heart surgery. The CoreValve®Evolut™ R System is deployed with a catheter, which is inserted into an artery and guided to the heart. The artificial valve takes over the function of the diseased valve. The system is much less invasive than open surgery.

Diabetes drug metformin's primary effect is in the gut, not the bloodstream

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

Metformin was introduced as a type-2 diabetes treatment decades ago, but researchers still debate how the drug works. A new study shows that metformin's primary effect occurs in the gut, not the bloodstream. And a new version of the drug could help more people control their diabetes.

Study compares heparin to warfarin for treatment of blood clots in patients with cancer

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

Among patients with active cancer and acute symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE; blood clots in the deep veins), the use of the low molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin daily for 6 months compared with warfarin did not significantly reduce recurrent VTE and was not associated with reductions in overall death or major bleeding, but was associated with a lower rate of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, according to a study.

Chengjiang biota: Bringing fossils into focus

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:26 AM PDT

Researchers have used computed microtomography (micro-CT) to identify to the species level an exceptionally well-preserved fossil arthropod from the famous Chengjiang Lagerstätte in China.

In the spotlight: X chromosome inactivation

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:26 AM PDT

Each cell in a woman's body contains two X chromosomes. One of these chromosomes is switched off, because nobody can live with two active X chromosomes. Researchers have now shown the mechanism of spreading of this inactivation over the X chromosome.

MRI scanners can steer tumor busting viruses to specific target sites within body

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:26 AM PDT

MRI scanners, normally used to produce images, can steer cell-based, tumor busting therapies to specific target sites in the body, researchers have discovered.

Examining the fate of Fukushima contaminants

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:24 AM PDT

An international research team reports results of a three-year study of sediment samples collected offshore from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The research aids in understanding what happens to Fukushima contaminants after they are buried on the seafloor off coastal Japan. Scientists found that a small fraction of contaminated seafloor sediments off Fukushima are moved offshore by typhoons that resuspend radioactive particles in the water.

Proof-of-concept study shows potential for ultrasound to detect signs of preterm labor

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:24 AM PDT

An international team of researchers has conducted a proof-of-concept study that raises the possibility of using ultrasound techniques to detect cervical stiffness changes that indicate an increased risk of preterm labor in pregnant women. While additional work needs to be done, it may ultimately give doctors a new tool for determining when to provide treatment that can prevent preterm birth.

Linking molecules to microbes

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:24 AM PDT

Microbes are the oldest and most successful organisms on the planet, and they communicate and interact using chemistry as their language. It remains extremely challenging to understand these chemical interactions in natural environments, for instance, to tie the production of particular molecules to individual bacterial cells or at least populations of cells. Scientists now made an important step into this direction by simultaneously visualizing the distribution of antibiotics and their producers in natural samples.

Bacteria's secret weapon against pesticides, antibiotics revealed

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:24 AM PDT

Bacteria exhibit extreme adaptability, which makes them capable of surviving in the most inhospitable conditions. New research results produced by Danish and British researchers now reveal the molecular details behind one of the secret weapons used by bacteria in their battle to survive under very nutrient-poor and even toxic conditions.

Worsening wind forecasts signal stormy times ahead for seabirds

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 08:24 AM PDT

Stronger winds forecast as a result of climate change could impact on populations of wild animals, by affecting how well they can feed, a study of seabirds suggests.

Unique technology for creating microdroplets developed

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:31 AM PDT

Scientists have devised a unique technology for creating microdroplets suitable for portable automatic analytical devices in various fields from internal security to environmental monitoring and space research.

Securing data from tomorrow's supercomputers

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

For the powerful quantum computers that will be developed in the future, cracking online bank account details and credit cards number will be a synch. But a team of cryptographers is already working at future-proofing the privacy of today's Internet communications from tomorrow's powerful computers.

Just one in 10 are referred for cardiac rehab after treatment for heart failure

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

Very few heart failure patients are referred to a cardiac rehabilitation program after being hospitalized, despite strong evidence that such exercise programs improve quality of life and reduce the likelihood of future hospitalizations.

Fresh from the tree

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

Think you'd like the food on your plate more if it was moving? Off-hand, your mind might go to images of worms and other small critters -- an unappealing proposition. But a new study provides rationale for the common use of depictions of food in motion on packaging and in marketing campaigns.

Key genetic event underlying fin-to-limb evolution

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

A study of catsharks reveals how alterations in the expression and function of certain genes in limb buds underlie the evolution of fish fins to limbs. The findings give new insight into how fish evolved to live on land in the form of early tetrapods.

Pediatric training essential to improving out-of-hospital emergency care for children

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

Researchers conducted a national survey of more than 750 EMS providers to identify airway management, personal anxiety and limited pediatric care proficiency among to top contributors for children in out-of-hospital emergent care situations. This research supports the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for pediatric physician involvement in EMS training, medical oversight and policy development.

Breakthrough optics pave way for new class of intriguing technologies

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 07:29 AM PDT

A new class of fascinating technologies -- including optics in computing, telecommunications links and switches, and virtually any other optical component -- could be created simply by configuring a mesh of light-controlling devices known as interferometers. This is similar to the way electronic semiconductors can fashion the wide array of digital technologies we have at our disposal today.

Republicans have happier marriages than Democrats, study indicates

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 06:05 AM PDT

Republicans tend to be happier in their marriages than Democrats, and are less likely to be divorced, reveals a new article. The findings add to an ongoing debate over which set of political ideals help to lead people to a happy life, say the investigators.

New non-invasive skin cancer test put to the test

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 06:03 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new non-invasive technique which can accurately detect malignant melanoma without a biopsy. Their report shows that a special technique using a laser to detect the subtle differences in blood flow beneath the skin enabled researchers to tell the difference between malignant melanoma and non-cancerous moles.

Accuracy of sexual assault testimonies not affected by alcohol intoxication, study finds

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 06:02 AM PDT

Intoxicated victims of sexual assault could accurately retain information from events, conclude researchers after a study. Findings are being applied to develop National Guidelines in England for how the police could interview sexual assault victims who were intoxicated during the crime. These results also challenge the misconception that intoxicated victims and witnesses are unreliable.

Massacres, torture and mutilation: Extreme violence in neolithic conflicts

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 06:02 AM PDT

Violent conflicts in Neolithic Europe were held more brutally than has been known so far. This emerges from a recent anthropological analysis of the roughly 7000-year-old mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten. The findings show that victims were murdered and deliberately mutilated.

GABA supplementation improves planning for actions, study shows

Posted: 18 Aug 2015 06:02 AM PDT

People show an enhanced ability of prioritizing planned actions after the ingestion of the food supplement GABA, reports a team of psychologists and other researchers.