السبت، 22 أغسطس 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

New ring can diagnose sexually transmitted diseases in a single test

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 02:22 PM PDT

A ring with the ability to diagnose sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis has been developed.

Social surveys no longer accurately measure sex, gender in US

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 01:42 PM PDT

Most social surveys are not measuring what surveyors think is being measured when it comes to sex and gender, new research reveals. To better reflect today's diversity, researchers say that survey designers should ask themselves if using only one question with two possible answers is enough.

New drug protects against the deadly effects of nuclear radiation 24 hours after exposure

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 01:41 PM PDT

A new breakthrough has been reported in countering the deadly effects of radiation exposure. A single injection of a regenerative peptide was shown to significantly increase survival in mice when given 24 hours after nuclear radiation exposure.

Peat fires in Sumatra strengthen in El Nino years

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 01:41 PM PDT

Sumatra's burning again and the El Nino event that is occurring this year is partially to blame for the proliferation of the blazes.

Chestnut leaves yield extract that disarms deadly staph bacteria

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 01:41 PM PDT

The study of a chestnut leaf extract, rich in ursene and oleanene derivatives, shows that it that blocks Staphlococcus aureus virulence and pathogenesis without detectable resistance.

Diabetes linked to bone health

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

A link between diabetes and bone health has been found by researchers. Clinical trials have revealed a startling elevation in fracture risk in diabetic patients, the investigators note.

Next gen electronics: Superlattice design realizes elusive multiferroic properties

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

With a new design that sandwiches a polar metallic oxide between insulating materials at the nanoscale, the resulting multiferroic superlattice could open the door for improved electronics.

Graphene oxide's secret properties revealed at atomic level

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

Scientists have found that graphene oxide's inherent defects give rise to a surprising mechanical property caused by an unusual mechanochemical reaction.

Genetic ancestry partially explains one racial sleep difference

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

A new study clearly establishes a partial genetic basis underlying racial differences in slow-wave sleep, suggesting that it may be possible to develop sleep-related therapies that target specific genetic variants.

Improving cardiorespiratory fitness reduces risk of arrhythmia recurrence

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 11:17 AM PDT

Obese atrial fibrillation patients have a lower chance of arrhythmia recurrence if they have high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk continues to decline as exercise capacity increases as part of treatment, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Photon-based rather than electron-based computers? 'Magic' sphere for information transfer

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 10:16 AM PDT

A professor has made the 'magic' sphere for information transfer. In several years our computers, nanoantennas and other kinds of equipment will operate on the base of photons, rather than electrons. Even now we are practically prepared to accomplish this switch. If it happens, the spheres may become one of the elementary components of new photonic devices.

Physician support key to successful weight loss, study shows

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 09:55 AM PDT

A review of survey data from more than 300 obese people who participated in a federally funded weight loss clinical trial found that although the overall weight loss rates were modest, those who rated their primary care doctor's support as particularly helpful lost about twice as many pounds as those who didn't.

Green light of hope to overcome Striga-triggered food insecurity in Africa

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 09:54 AM PDT

A molecular approach has been used to identify the protein responsible for germination of Striga seeds through visualization by green fluorescence. Striga, a parasitic plant known as witchweed has seriously affected millions of hectares of crop fields in Africa that poses a major threat to food security. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism on how Striga seeds detect host crops has not been fully clear up to now. In a new study, chemists and biologists have come together to develop a new visualizing molecule to examine the process of Striga germination.

Weak doses of radiation prolong life of female flies, scientists find

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 09:53 AM PDT

Scientists have revealed that weak doses of gamma radiation prolong the life of drosophila flies (fruit flies), and that the effect is stronger in females than in males. These findings could reveal the genes that enable the prolongation of life and in the future lead to the creation of a means to prevent aging in humans.

Inspired by Venus flytrap, researchers develop folding 'snap' geometry

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:11 AM PDT

Inspired by natural 'snapping' systems like Venus flytrap leaves and hummingbird beaks, a team of scientists has developed a way to use curved creases to give thin curved shells a fast, programmable snapping motion. The new technique avoids the need for complicated materials and fabrication methods when creating structures with fast dynamics.

Impact of sleep disturbance on recovery in veterans with PTSD and TBI

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:10 AM PDT

Poor sleep may impact treatment and recovery in veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A review of extensive research on sleep in TBI and PTSD has found that sleep-focused interventions can improve treatment outcomes in veterans.

Anti-aging tricks from dietary supplement seen in mice

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:10 AM PDT

The dietary supplement alpha lipoic acid can stimulate telomerase, the enzyme that lengthens chromosomes' protective caps, with positive effects in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, scientists report. The discovery highlights a potential avenue for the treatment for chronic diseases.

How DNA 'proofreader' proteins pick and edit their reading material

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:10 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered how two important proofreader proteins know where to look for errors during DNA replication and how they work together to signal the body's repair mechanism.

Multiple sclerosis: Cognition linked with limited activity, participation

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:10 AM PDT

Processing speed is the primary limiting factor associated with activity and participation in everyday life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), research has found. This is the first such study of cognition and measures of activity and participation in MS.

Passion for your job? If not, it's attainable

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 08:10 AM PDT

People who have not found their perfect fit in a career can take heart: There is more than one way to attain passion for work.

Graphene drives potential for the next-generation of fuel-efficient cars

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:38 AM PDT

Graphene could lead to greener more fuel efficient cars in the future by converting heat into electricity, scientists say. Graphene's range of superlative properties and small size causes the transfer of heat through the material to slow leading to the desired lower operating temperatures.

Tests used to measure internal bleeding for patients taking two popular drugs may not be reliable

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:37 AM PDT

While internal bleeding may be uncommon as a result of taking blood thinners such as Xarelto® (rivaroxaban) and Eliquis® (apixaban), the normal coagulation tests physicians use to check for the side effect of bleeding may not be reliable, new research suggests.

Why collaboration may encourage corporate corruption

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

While the benefits of cooperation in human society are clear, new research suggests it also has a dark side -- one that encourages corrupt behavior.

High sugar consumption among children relates to poor family functioning, study finds

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

The quality of general family functioning is a major determinant of healthy dietary habits, according to new research. A British study found that a mother's perception of effective general family functioning has a significant effect on limiting the intake of sugary foods and drinks by their three and four year old children. In contrast, less effective family functioning leads to high frequency intake of sugary foods and drinks by three and four year old children in the family.

Intractable pain may find relief in tiny gold rods

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a technique that could lead to therapies for pain relief in people with intractable pain, potentially including cancer-related pain. The team coated gold nanorods with a special type of protein that transports fat within the body known as a lipoprotein. This allowed the nanorods to bind efficiently to nerve cell membranes bearing a pain receptor. Gold nanorods are tiny rods that are 1-100 nanometers wide and long. In comparison, a human hair is 100,000 nanometers wide.

Some single people are happy on their own, research finds

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 07:36 AM PDT

New American research with a nationally representative sample has found that single people with high avoidance goals are just as happy being single as other people in relationships.

Bizarre bat with longest tongue discovered in Bolivian park

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 06:31 AM PDT

A groundbreaking Bolivian scientific expedition, Identidad Madidi, has found a bizarre bat along with a new species of big-headed or robber frog (Oreobates sp. nov.) from the Craugastoridae family in Madidi National Park.

Research on meat species shows mislabeling in commercial products

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 06:30 AM PDT

Two separate studies have been released on meat mislabeling in consumer commercial products. One study focused on identification of species found in ground meat products, and the other focused on game meat species labeling. Both studies examined products sold in the US commercial market; and both study outcomes identified species mislabeling among the product samples.

Developing high-sensitivity, high resolution magnetocardiography for use at room temperature

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a sensor for the living body that can detect the bio-magnetic field with high sensitivity and high resolution.

Identifying the factors that contribute to flood fatalities

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

Levels of economic development, population, investment, openness and education can all impact the total amount of human misery and economic devastation caused by floods, according to a new study.

Exploring the link between globalization and stress

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:37 AM PDT

A direct relationship exists between stress and globalization -- for instance, transnational corporations and transnational economics -- according to a recent study.

Scientists warn of the risk from air pollution over the megacities of West Africa

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

New research warns of the risks posed by the increasing air pollution over the cities of West Africa – amid fears it could have an impact on human health, meteorology and regional climate.

Some things are too good to be true: Lycaenid butterfly larvae manipulate ants

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

Lycaenid butterfly larvae, which are in a symbiotic relationship with ants, can control the effect of dopamine by supplying the ants with nectar, new research shows. The results of this study provide novel insight into the phenomenon of symbiosis and give clues about the physiological functions of dopamine.

Solving mysteries of the interstellar medium

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

It is one of the most intriguing questions in astrochemistry: the mystery of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), a collection of about 400 absorption bands that show up in spectra of light that reaches the earth after having traversed the interstellar medium. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, an assignment of the DIBs has remained elusive, although indications exist that they may arise from the presence of large hydrocarbon molecules in interstellar space. Recent experiments lend novel credibility to this hypothesis.

Something to chew on: Millions of lives blighted by smokeless tobacco

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

More than a quarter of a million people die each year from using smokeless tobacco, researchers have concluded. The study estimates that in 2010 alone smokeless tobacco resulted in more than 62,000 deaths due to cancers of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus and accounted for more than 200,00 deaths from heart disease.

Key protein in cilia assembly identified

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

Many cells in our bodies present a small structure that looks like, and as a matter of fact works as an antenna, conveying to the cell information on the extracellular environment. They are called cilia (plural) or cilium (singular). Ciliated cells play essential functions in the human body. Thus, for instance, the monitoring of fluid flow in the kidney, the detection of hormones in the brain, or the senses of hearing and smell depend on specialized neurons equipped with chemo-sensory or mechano-sensory cilia. New research contributes to understanding how cilia are assembled.

Next generation of high power lasers developed

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

Researchers are developing groundbreaking plasma based light amplifiers that could replace traditional high power laser amplifiers.

Origin of Saturn’s F ring and its shepherd satellites revealed

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

Scientists have revealed that Saturn's F ring and its shepherd satellites are natural outcome of the final stage of formation of Saturn's satellite system.

Immune system: Help for killer cells

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

New light has been shed on an important immune mechanism. The work shows how the body provides the important killer cells with a helper in the case of an infection. The study could point the way to better vaccines in the future.

Northern bald ibises fit for their journey to Tuscany

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:34 AM PDT

January 2014 saw the launch of one of Europe's largest species conservation projects. The project's aim is to reintroduce the northern bald ibis, a species of migratory bird, to Europe by the year 2019. Veterinarians make sure the animals are fit for their journey to the south. 31 hand-raised northern bald ibises are healthy and will begin their migration coming Saturday, following an ultralight aircraft towards Tuscany. Other 17 juvenile birds raised by their parents will follow experienced adult birds.

Novel nanostructures for efficient long-range energy transport

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:27 AM PDT

An interdisciplinary group of researchers report on nanofibers, which enable for the first time a directed energy transport over several micrometers at room temperature. This transport distance can only be explained with quantum coherence effects along the individual nanofibers.

Greenhouse gases caused glacial retreat during last Ice Age

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:27 AM PDT

A recalculation of the dates at which boulders were uncovered by melting glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age has conclusively shown that the glacial retreat was due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, as opposed to other types of forces. The data helps to confirm predictions of future glacial retreat, and that most of the world's glaciers may disappear in the next few centuries.

How can we improve data sharing of biomedical research across the globe?

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:27 AM PDT

With the globalization of biomedical research and growing concerns about possible pandemics of diseases such as HIV, SARS, and Ebola, international data-sharing practices are of growing interest to the biomedical science community. A new special journal issue presents guidelines, protocols, models, and new resources to improve data sharing across the globe.

Persist and shout: Male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:27 AM PDT

Birds 'shout' to be heard over the noise produced by human-made activity, new research has shown. Researchers recorded songs produced by 32 male bluebirds, and analysed two from each male -- those produced during the quietest and loudest period of ambient noise -- to investigate whether males changes their songs between these two conditions

Study uses 311 complaints to track when and where neighborhood conflict emerges

Posted: 21 Aug 2015 05:27 AM PDT

In a new study from New York University using 311 complaint data, researchers tracked when and where New Yorkers complain about their neighbors making noise, blocking driveways, or drinking in public. They found that these complaints -- a defining aspect of urban life -- are more likely to occur in areas sandwiched between two homogenous communities, where the boundaries between different ethnic and racial groups aren't clearly defined.

Genetic modification: 'The most critical technology' for feeding the world

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:26 PM PDT

A former adviser to the US Secretary of State says that genetic modification is the most critical technology in agriculture for meeting the challenges of feeding a growing global population.

Eating 'on the go' could lead to weight gain, new research finds

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 06:26 PM PDT

Dieters who eat 'on the go' may increase their food intake later in the day which could lead to weight gain and obesity, new research shows. The findings from the study also showed that eating while walking around triggered more overeating compared to eating during other forms of distraction such as watching TV or having a conversation with a friend.

Melting snow and groundwater levels in Sierra Nevadas

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 04:03 PM PDT

Changing climate conditions have caused dramatic changes in groundwater levels. A new study aimed at understanding the changes in soil wetting and drying that occur as snow melts in mountainous, snow-packed regions. The study examined subsurface water content levels in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California. In these regions, soils do not freeze during the winter and remain wet beneath the snowpack.

Experts claim number of people with dementia in some Western European countries could be stabilizing

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 04:02 PM PDT

A group of leading experts on the epidemiology of dementia state that the number of people with dementia -- both new cases and total numbers with the disease -- in some Western European countries is stabilizing despite population aging, in direct contrast to the 'dementia epidemic' reported in some recent studies.

Nine risk factors may contribute to two-thirds of Alzheimer's cases worldwide

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 04:02 PM PDT

Nine potentially modifiable risk factors may contribute to up to two-thirds of Alzheimer's disease cases worldwide, suggests an analysis of the available evidence.

'Substantial' number of NHS hospital staff treat victims of human trafficking

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 04:02 PM PDT

A 'substantial' proportion of NHS hospital staff -- around one in eight, in some places -- treat the victims of people trafficking, with maternity services most likely to do so, finds new research.

Antibodies in the blood provide clues to transplant recipients' likelihood of rejection

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 04:02 PM PDT

Among kidney transplant recipients, patients with mostly IgG3 donor-specific HLA antibodies had a higher likelihood of organ rejection soon after transplantation, scientists have found. If rejection occurred in those with mostly IgG4 antibodies, it was usually much later after transplantation.

Women warriors at no greater risk for PTSD than men, study finds

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 03:59 PM PDT

While past research on the question has been mixed, a new study suggests that women in the military are at no greater risk than men for developing posttraumatic stress disorder, given similar experiences -- including combat.

US hospitals flout CDC recommendations that prevent infections

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 03:59 PM PDT

There is significant variability regarding how clinicians manage catheters placed in the arteries of patients in intensive care units, research shows. Some practices may increase risk of infection associated with these catheters. Fewer than half of those surveyed complied with current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention infection prevention guidelines for arterial catheter insertions.

Spouses of stroke survivors face lingering health issues

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 03:59 PM PDT

Caregiver spouses of stroke survivors are at an increased risk of mental and physical health issues that may continue for years after stroke. Spouses of stroke survivors reported lower scores in several mental and physical areas -- more health issues affecting their lives, less vitality, and reduced social function -- not only during the first years after stroke but also in the long-term, research shows.

Study documents extent of unexpected sexual consequences for young women who drink alcohol

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 01:04 PM PDT

In-depth interviews of 20 young women attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic have documented a variety of unexpected, unintended sexual encounters linked to their alcohol use before sex occurs.

New design for an easily fabricated, flexible and wearable white-light LED

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 01:02 PM PDT

Highly flexible, efficient white LEDs have been created with potential use in wearable displays and non-flat surfaces, such as curved and flexible television screens, scientists report.

Study finds genes associated with improved survival for pancreatic cancer patients

Posted: 20 Aug 2015 01:02 PM PDT

A new set of genes that can indicate improved survival after surgery for patients with pancreatic cancer has been identified by researchers. The study also showed that detection of circulating tumor DNA in the blood could provide an early indication of tumor recurrence.