السبت، 14 يناير 2017

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

Cleverly designed tuberculosis vaccine shows promise in mice

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 12:55 PM PST

A clever new tuberculosis vaccine has shown promise in trials in mice. If it succeeds, it will be the first new TB vaccine in a century. With the rise of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, the difficulty of curing the disease, and the large annual death toll, a successful vaccine could be a huge benefit to public health -- especially in low- and middle income countries.

Bloodstream infections: Most common type of health care-associated infections in children

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 12:55 PM PST

A new study establishes the prevalence and type of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in children in Europe and describes risk factors for infection in this population.

Older, fitter adults experience greater brain activity while learning

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 12:54 PM PST

Older adults who experience good cardiac fitness may be also keeping their brains in good shape as well. In what is believed to be the first study of its kind, older adults who scored high on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) tests performed better on memory tasks than those who had low CRF. Further, the more fit older adults were, the more active their brain was during learning.

The global toll of fetal alcohol syndrome

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 12:54 PM PST

Worldwide, an estimated 119,000 children are born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) each year, a new study shows. The study provides the first-ever estimates of the proportion of women who drink during pregnancy, as well as estimates of FAS by country, World Health Organization region and worldwide.

Eat hot peppers for a longer life? Study

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 10:30 AM PST

Consumption of hot red chili peppers is associated with a 13 percent reduction in total mortality, a large prospective study has found.

Older adults walk more for money, opportunity to donate to charity

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 10:30 AM PST

Personal and social goals may be effective in motivating older adults to exercise, according to a new study.

Targeted therapy for sleep disorders helps patients with muscular dystrophy

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 10:29 AM PST

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, and many patients with DM1 suffer from various sleep and respiratory disorders. In a new study, researchers found that because there is wide range of sleep problems, treatments do not fit a "one size fits all" model.

MIA transport protein no longer missing in action

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 08:59 AM PST

Scientists have made a breakthrough in understanding how valuable anti-cancer compounds are produced in the Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).

Increased cooperation between preschool, CHC to identify children with mental health problems

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 06:34 AM PST

It is beneficial to systematize the exchange of information between parents, preschool and child care centres (CHCs) to increase the focus on young children with mental health problems, research concludes.

Cyanobacteria: The future of sunscreen?

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 06:33 AM PST

Sunscreens and moisturizers derived from biological sources such as cyanobacteria could represent a safer alternative to current, synthetically produced cosmetics, research suggests.

Workouts with fewer reps could yield better results

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 06:04 AM PST

Time-poor people who do fewer repetitions during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) workouts may get better fitness benefits than those who complete more, according to an analysis.

Reducing the radioresistance of cancer

Posted: 13 Jan 2017 05:59 AM PST

Some cancer cells are protected from radiation therapy through an interaction of interleukin-6 with the Nrf2-antioxidant pathway, researchers have found. The discovery is believed to improve methods of increasing cancer's radiosensitivity.

New urine test can quickly detect whether a person has a healthy diet

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 06:59 PM PST

A urine test has been developed that measures the health of a person's diet. This test could be the first independent indicator of the quality of a person's diet, and what they are really eating, say the researchers.

Trial finds oral iron drug safe, effective for treating anemia in kidney disease patients

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 03:09 PM PST

In a phase 3 trial of patients with chronic kidney disease, 52.1% of patients receiving oral ferric citrate experienced a significant boost in hemoglobin levels (a reflection of red blood cell counts) compared with 19.1% of patients receiving placebo. A treatment effect was seen as early as 1-2 weeks after the start of treatment, and the response was durable.

'Data-driven' approach may reduce violence to hospital workers

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 01:25 PM PST

A worksite intervention using unit-level data on violent events can lead to lower risks of patient-to-worker violence and injury to hospital staff, suggests a new study.

Annual report examines state of college student mental heath

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 01:06 PM PST

Despite increased demand for counseling centers on college campuses, students aren't necessarily getting sicker. Instead, it's likely student mental health needs across the country have increased due to national prevention and awareness efforts over the past decade.

New research holds promise for personalized lung cancer treatments

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 11:12 AM PST

New research has uncovered distinct types of tumors within small cell lung cancer that look and act differently from one another. Scientists also identified a targeted drug combination that worked well with one specific tumor type. The study findings suggest small cell lung cancer should not be treated as a uniform disease.

Awareness of biases is key to better health care decisions

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:08 AM PST

The Gerontological Society of America has expanded its Communicating with Older Adults publication series with the release of 'Recognizing Hidden Traps in Health Care Decision Making.'

The promise and peril of emerging reproductive technologies

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 08:07 AM PST

While in vitro gametogenesis carries a promise to unravel the fundamental mechanisms of devastating genetic forms of infertility and to pave the way to a range of new therapies, the technique also raises a number of vexing legal and ethical questions that society should address before IVG becomes ready for prime-time clinical use in human patients, a trio of scholars argues.

Instagram documents rising hookah use

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 05:56 AM PST

Social media is giving researchers insight into the rising use of hookah, according to a study. Hookah, smoked through a water pipe and also known as shisha, has harmful health effects similar to cigarettes. But as cigarette use declined between 2005 and 2015 in the US, hookah use increased. New data from social media documents thousands of people using hookah in social settings and nightlife establishments using social media to promote hookah use.

Health equity study compares segregation, low birth weight in Chicago, Toronto

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 05:51 AM PST

Low birth weight is strongly associated with racial and ethnic segregation in Chicago neighborhoods, new research shows. In Toronto, however, communities with high proportions of racial and ethnic minorities did not have greater rates of low birth weight. Researchers believe the findings can inform future research on the root causes of health inequities.

Removable airway stent could revolutionize surgery

Posted: 12 Jan 2017 05:37 AM PST

A knitted rag sock inspired this professor and MD to develop a stent that can easily be removed after it has done its job. 

New guideline on how to map brain prior to epilepsy surgery

Posted: 11 Jan 2017 03:41 PM PST

Before epilepsy surgery, doctors may consider using brain imaging to locate language and memory functions in the brain instead of the more invasive procedure that is commonly used, according to a guideline. It is the first evidence-based guideline that systematically reviewed all evidence for such an evaluation.

Study finds vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce rabies deaths in India

Posted: 11 Jan 2017 03:40 PM PST

Every year in India, about 20,000 people die from rabies. Most of the victims are children. Nearly all of the deaths occur after victims are bitten by rabid dogs. For years, experts have debated the best strategy to reduce this burden. Now, a new study has identified a cost-effective way to reduce death due to rabies.

Study unveils how stress may increase risk of heart disease and stroke

Posted: 11 Jan 2017 03:39 PM PST

Heightened activity in the amygdala - a region of the brain involved in stress - is associated with a greater risk of heart disease and stroke, according to a new study.