السبت، 7 يناير 2017

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

ScienceDaily: Health & Medicine News

Study characterizes key molecular tool in DNA repair enzymes

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

Oxidative damage to a cell's DNA is constant and destructive and a complex suite of enzymes have evolved to repair and maintain it. In an important new step in teasing out these complex processes, an enzyme component known as Zf-GRF, which is highly conserved in several enzymes and across species, has been shown to be a key molecular tools that binds and orients repair enzymes to DNA.

Why is asthma worse in black patients?

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:30 AM PST

African Americans may be less responsive to asthma treatment and more likely to die from the condition, in part, because they have a unique type of airway inflammation, according to a study. The study is one of the largest and most diverse trials conducted in the U.S. on race and asthma, with 26 percent of the patients self-identifying as African American. Researchers found that black patients were more likely to exhibit eosinophilic airway inflammation than whites, despite taking comparable doses of asthma medication, such as inhaled corticosteroids.

New treatment for a rare form of encephalitis

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. It is a rare autoimmune disease that results in the body producing antibodies against the NMDA receptor, a protein that plays an important role in signal transduction in the brain. Using a new treatment regimen, researchers have recorded significant progress in treating the disease, including in patients who did not previously respond to treatment.

Researchers find key genetic driver for rare type of triple-negative breast cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

By developing a new mouse model to study a poorly understood protein, researchers uncovered its link to metaplastic breast cancer, opening the door to better understanding of this challenging breast cancer subtype.

New study finds one in five US gun owners obtained firearm without background check

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

One in five US gun owners who obtained a firearm in the past two years did so without a back­ground check, according to a new, American national survey.

Counseling, antidepressants change personality (for the better), team reports

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

A review of 207 studies involving more than 20,000 people found that those who engaged in therapeutic interventions were, on average, significantly less neurotic and a bit more extraverted after the interventions than they were beforehand.

Parents purchase frozen dinners for more than convenience

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

Processed foods are higher in calories, sugar, sodium, and saturated fat than natural foods, but prepackaged, processed meals remain a popular choice for many consumers because they reduce the energy, time, and cooking skills needed to prepare food. Having items like boxed entrees and frozen dinners available at home can contribute to a poor diet, which led researchers to examine reasons why parents purchase prepackaged, processed foods.

Tailored organoid may help unravel immune response mystery

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

Researchers report on the use of biomaterials-based organoids in an attempt to reproduce immune-system events and gain a better understanding of B cells.

Research reveals help for eating disorder patients

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

More people are dying from eating disorders than any other psychiatric disorder, and professor has discovered a way to help women by significantly reducing eating disorder symptoms in those who are struggling.

Unexpected role for epigenetic enzymes in cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

A new study focused on a family of enzymes — known as KDM5 — that have been shown in previous studies to be involved in cancer cell growth and spreading.

Time-restricted feeding study shows promise in helping people shed body fat

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

For the first time in humans, it has been reported that eating early in the day lessens daily swings in hunger and changes the 24-hour pattern of fat oxidation and energy metabolism, which may aid in weight loss

Study finds patterns of biomarkers predict how well people age, risks of age-related disease

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Levels of specific biomarkers, or chemicals found in the blood, can be combined to produce patterns that signify how well a person is aging and his or risk for future aging-related diseases, according to a new study.

Risk of long-term disability in older adults who visit the ED

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Older adults who go to the emergency department (ED) for an illness or injury are at increased risk for disability and decline in physical abilities up to six months later, according to a study.

New research describes how bacteria resists 'last-resort' antibiotic

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

An international research team has provided the first clues to understand how the mcr-1 gene protects bacteria from colistin -- a 'last resort' antibiotic used to treat life-threatening bacterial infections that do not respond to other treatment options.

Halting lethal childhood leukemia

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Scientists have discovered the genetic driver of a lethal childhood leukemia that affects newborns and infants and identified a targeted molecular therapy that halts the proliferation of leukemic cells. The finding also has implications for treating other types of cancer.

Accelerated discovery a triple threat to triple negative breast cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Researchers have advanced a potential treatment for metaplastic breast cancer--the most aggressive subtype of triple negative breast cancer, into patients in just under four years.

Indoor tanning study reveals surprising new at-risk group for skin cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:28 AM PST

In a new study of indoor tanning and skin cancer risk, the use of indoor tanning among non-heterosexual black male teens was found to be nearly equal to that of heterosexual white females.

Autoimmunity and infections: When the body fights itself

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:23 AM PST

Doctors are on the trail of a possible connection between autoimmune diseases and infections: errors can occur when immune cells absorb certain proteins from pathogen cells.

Preventing mortality after myocardial infarction

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

A new study is aiming to determine the optimal amount of blood to transfuse in anemic patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction.

Gastric bypass helps severely obese teenagers maintain weight loss over long term

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

Surgery leads to significant weight loss and health benefits over 5-12 years, but may lead to more surgery and vitamin deficiency in some, new research suggests.

Consumption of grilled meat linked to higher mortality risk among breast cancer survivors

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:28 PM PST

Findings published in JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute indicate that higher consumption of grilled, barbecued, and smoked meat may increase the mortality risk among breast cancer survivors.

Older lung cancer patients face significant treatment burden

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:28 PM PST

Depending on the type of treatment older lung cancer patients receive, they can spend an average of one in three days interacting with the healthcare system in the first 60 days after surgery or radiation therapy, according to a new study.

New surgical mask doesn't just trap viruses, it renders them harmless

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 01:02 PM PST

The surgical masks people wear to stop the spread of diseases don't work well -- that isn't what they're designed for. Pathogens like influenza are transmitted in aerosol droplets when we cough or sneeze. Masks trap the droplets but the virus remains infectious. Scientists took on the challenge of improving the masks, using salt to turn them into virus killers.

Worker-owned cooperatives may help address elder care deficit

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:44 AM PST

A growing elder care shortage could be eased by worker-owned cooperatives, a little-used business model that also improves the working conditions and the quality of life for caregivers.

Reducing recurrence of heart attacks, death in patients with cardiovascular disease

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:43 AM PST

A new test can identify patients with a history of cardiovascular disease who are at high risk of another heart attack or death and would benefit from treatment with the drug vorapaxar.

Novel tests improve treatment for heart failure patients

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:43 AM PST

For the first time, researchers have developed tests that could improve treatment for heart failure patients by diagnosing the condition with greater accuracy, as well as by detecting the onset of congestive heart failure earlier.

Lung-specific Ebola infection found in recovering patient

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:35 AM PST

Scientists have found potential evidence of Ebola virus replication in the lungs of a person recovering from infection, according to new research. The findings could aid research into new treatment approaches and better understanding of how the virus is transmitted.

Medical screening and fly control could rapidly reduce sleeping sickness in key locations

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:35 AM PST

In 2012, the World Health Organization set public health goals for reducing Gambian sleeping sickness, a parasitic infection. Now, by mathematically modeling the impact of different intervention strategies, researchers report have described how two-pronged approaches, integrating medical intervention and vector control, could substantially speed up the elimination of sleeping sickness in high burden areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Identifying children at risk of eating disorders is key to saving lives

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:32 AM PST

Spotting eating disorder symptoms in children as young as nine years old will allow medics to intervene early and save lives, experts say.

New therapeutic agent proves more effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:32 AM PST

Medical researchers have demonstrated that lutetium-177-labeled PSMA-617 is a promising new therapeutic agent for radioligand therapy of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

High monthly vitamin D reduces respiratory infections, may increase falls for older adults

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:31 AM PST

Researchers concluded that a monthly high dose of vitamin D reduced the number of respiratory infections in older adults but increased the number of falls they experienced. More study is needed to see whether daily (rather than monthly) dosing with high levels of vitamin D could help protect older adults from respiratory infections and minimize the risk of falls, said the researchers.

Physical activity reduces heart disease deaths for older adults

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:31 AM PST

A new study examined whether regular leisure-time physical activity could reduce deaths from all causes, and whether it also could reduce deaths from cardiovascular disease. The researchers discovered that moderate- as well as high-levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and death from all causes, including from events such as strokes or heart attacks.

Eight years of decreased MRSA health care-associated infections associated with Veterans Affairs Prevention Initiative

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:31 AM PST

A campaign to limit healthcare facility-associated infections (HAIs) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to make significant progress.

First complete interactome map of human receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphatases

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:31 AM PST

Researchers have mapped interactions among all human membrane RTKs and PTPs, providing clues how these proteins work in normal cells and how they can go wrong in cancer.

Scientists find how cancer cells can shrug off physical constraints on growth and spread

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 09:30 AM PST

Scientists have revealed how cancer cells are able to break free of the physical restraints imposed by their surroundings in order to grow and spread around the body. The research could point to new ways to treat or prevent the spread of cancer cells, which is the biggest cause of cancer death.