السبت، 7 يناير 2017

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

New personality model sets up how we see ourselves, and how others see us

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 01:30 PM PST

A new personality trait model could save employers money in hiring and retention costs. This could be done by better weeding out candidates and having a better system for employee evaluations.

Hubble detects 'exocomets' taking the plunge into a young star

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 01:30 PM PST

Interstellar forecast for a nearby star: Raining comets! NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered comets plunging onto the star HD 172555, which is a youthful 23 million years old and resides 95 light-years from Earth.

Research supports role of supernovas in measuring pace at which the universe expands

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 01:29 PM PST

A team of research scientists recently published a paper marking the importance of Type Ia supernovas in measuring the pace at which the universe expands. Type Ia supernovas are among the very brightest cosmic explosions visible, signaling the death of stars, and their importance to cosmology cannot be understated.

Large-scale tornado outbreaks increasing in frequency

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 01:29 PM PST

The frequency of large-scale tornado outbreaks is increasing in the United States, particularly when it comes to the most extreme events, according to new research.

First-ever direct observation of collisional plasmoid instability during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory setting

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:12 PM PST

Physicists have for the first time directly observed a phenomenon that had previously only been hypothesized to exist. The phenomenon, plasmoid instabilities that occur during collisional magnetic reconnection, had until this year only been observed indirectly using remote-sensing technology.

Is student debt responsible for 'boomeranging' among young adults?

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

While student loan debt has reached an all-time high, it does not increase young adults' risk of 'boomeranging' or returning to their parental home, according to a study. Boomerangers, surprisingly, had less student loan debt than young adults who didn't return home. However, researchers found that the link between debt and boomeranging varied by ethnicity, finding an increased risk of boomeranging among black, but not white, youth.

Clues into how brain shapes perception to control behavior

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

Some of the visual information our brains receive is potentially misleading. New research on fruit flies demonstrates how even a simple brain can filter out such misinformation, hinting at how our own brains might shape how we see the world -- and how we react to it.

Solar storms could spark soils at moon's poles

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

Powerful solar storms can charge up the soil in frigid, permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles, and may possibly produce 'sparks' that could vaporize and melt the soil, perhaps as much as meteoroid impacts, according to new research. This alteration may become evident when analyzing future samples from these regions that could hold the key to understanding the history of the moon and solar system.

Study characterizes key molecular tool in DNA repair enzymes

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

Oxidative damage to a cell's DNA is constant and destructive and a complex suite of enzymes have evolved to repair and maintain it. In an important new step in teasing out these complex processes, an enzyme component known as Zf-GRF, which is highly conserved in several enzymes and across species, has been shown to be a key molecular tools that binds and orients repair enzymes to DNA.

Study compiles data on 958 types of South American jellyfish

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 12:09 PM PST

Detailed information on 958 distinct morphological types of jellyfish that inhabit the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America has been compiled by scientists. The study involved scientists from Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia and Uruguay.

Why is asthma worse in black patients?

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:30 AM PST

African Americans may be less responsive to asthma treatment and more likely to die from the condition, in part, because they have a unique type of airway inflammation, according to a study. The study is one of the largest and most diverse trials conducted in the U.S. on race and asthma, with 26 percent of the patients self-identifying as African American. Researchers found that black patients were more likely to exhibit eosinophilic airway inflammation than whites, despite taking comparable doses of asthma medication, such as inhaled corticosteroids.

Giant iceberg, 5,000 square kilometers, set to calve from Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:19 AM PST

A huge iceberg looks set to break away from the Larsen C ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite observations from December 2016 show a growing crack in the ice shelf which suggests that an iceberg with an area of up to 5,000 square kilometers is likely to calve soon.

New treatment for a rare form of encephalitis

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. It is a rare autoimmune disease that results in the body producing antibodies against the NMDA receptor, a protein that plays an important role in signal transduction in the brain. Using a new treatment regimen, researchers have recorded significant progress in treating the disease, including in patients who did not previously respond to treatment.

Researchers find key genetic driver for rare type of triple-negative breast cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

By developing a new mouse model to study a poorly understood protein, researchers uncovered its link to metaplastic breast cancer, opening the door to better understanding of this challenging breast cancer subtype.

New study finds one in five US gun owners obtained firearm without background check

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

One in five US gun owners who obtained a firearm in the past two years did so without a back­ground check, according to a new, American national survey.

Counseling, antidepressants change personality (for the better), team reports

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 10:09 AM PST

A review of 207 studies involving more than 20,000 people found that those who engaged in therapeutic interventions were, on average, significantly less neurotic and a bit more extraverted after the interventions than they were beforehand.

Parents purchase frozen dinners for more than convenience

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

Processed foods are higher in calories, sugar, sodium, and saturated fat than natural foods, but prepackaged, processed meals remain a popular choice for many consumers because they reduce the energy, time, and cooking skills needed to prepare food. Having items like boxed entrees and frozen dinners available at home can contribute to a poor diet, which led researchers to examine reasons why parents purchase prepackaged, processed foods.

Tailored organoid may help unravel immune response mystery

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

Researchers report on the use of biomaterials-based organoids in an attempt to reproduce immune-system events and gain a better understanding of B cells.

Research reveals help for eating disorder patients

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 09:58 AM PST

More people are dying from eating disorders than any other psychiatric disorder, and professor has discovered a way to help women by significantly reducing eating disorder symptoms in those who are struggling.

Zooplankton rapidly evolve tolerance to road salt

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:59 AM PST

A common species of zooplankton—the smallest animals in the freshwater food web—can evolve genetic tolerance to moderate levels of road salt in as little as two and a half months, according to new research.

Unexpected role for epigenetic enzymes in cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

A new study focused on a family of enzymes — known as KDM5 — that have been shown in previous studies to be involved in cancer cell growth and spreading.

Time-restricted feeding study shows promise in helping people shed body fat

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

For the first time in humans, it has been reported that eating early in the day lessens daily swings in hunger and changes the 24-hour pattern of fat oxidation and energy metabolism, which may aid in weight loss

Hubble provides interstellar road map for Voyagers' galactic trek

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:38 AM PST

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have measured the material along the Voyager 1 and 2 probes' trajectories as they move through space. Hubble data, combined with the Voyagers, have also provided new insights into how our sun travels through interstellar space.

Get down with the digital

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 08:36 AM PST

Music improvisation is all about the emotion, says one expert, but researchers have now found a way to understand the complex interactions that take place between instrumentalists and singers during a jam with the aim of using those insights to add greater emotional expression to a performance involving digital instruments.

Study finds patterns of biomarkers predict how well people age, risks of age-related disease

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Levels of specific biomarkers, or chemicals found in the blood, can be combined to produce patterns that signify how well a person is aging and his or risk for future aging-related diseases, according to a new study.

Risk of long-term disability in older adults who visit the ED

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Older adults who go to the emergency department (ED) for an illness or injury are at increased risk for disability and decline in physical abilities up to six months later, according to a study.

You've got mail: Personality differences in email use

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

A new study shows that while many of us cannot do our job without email, it can stress us out -- and that personality differences affect how we use email and what we find stressful. The results showed that those of us with a big picture focus are more likely to check our emails on holiday, at the weekend and before and after work than our more matter of fact counterparts. Unfortunately, sending emails outside of work hours leads to stress, as does the amount of emails we send and receive. Managers, regardless of personality type, are more likely to feel that they waste time on email and to find it overwhelming and stressful.

New research describes how bacteria resists 'last-resort' antibiotic

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

An international research team has provided the first clues to understand how the mcr-1 gene protects bacteria from colistin -- a 'last resort' antibiotic used to treat life-threatening bacterial infections that do not respond to other treatment options.

Halting lethal childhood leukemia

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Scientists have discovered the genetic driver of a lethal childhood leukemia that affects newborns and infants and identified a targeted molecular therapy that halts the proliferation of leukemic cells. The finding also has implications for treating other types of cancer.

Off-grid power in remote areas will require special business model to succeed

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Low-cost, off-grid solar energy could provide significant economic benefit to people living in some remote areas, but a new study suggests they generally lack the access to financial resources, commercial institutions and markets needed to bring solar electricity to their communities.

Accelerated discovery a triple threat to triple negative breast cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

Researchers have advanced a potential treatment for metaplastic breast cancer--the most aggressive subtype of triple negative breast cancer, into patients in just under four years.

Great Barrier Reef almost drowned; climate implications

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:29 AM PST

The first comprehensive analysis of the Great Barrier Reef at a time of rapid sea-level rise during the beginning of the Last Interglacial found it almost died. The research shows the reef can be resilient but questions remain about cumulative impacts. The research also provides an accurate identification of the age of the fossil reef that grew before the modern Great Barrier Reef, some 129,000-121,000 years ago.

Indoor tanning study reveals surprising new at-risk group for skin cancer

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:28 AM PST

In a new study of indoor tanning and skin cancer risk, the use of indoor tanning among non-heterosexual black male teens was found to be nearly equal to that of heterosexual white females.

The technological potential of earwax

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:25 AM PST

Scientists are seeing potential in some sort of biomimetic earwax adhesive surface that can be used in a ventilation system for robotics or for other kinds of machinery.

Rocky mountain haze

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:25 AM PST

An atmospheric scientist has found a correlation between the severity of drought in the Intermountain West and the summertime air quality, particularly the concentration of aerosol particles, in remote mountain wilderness regions.

Astronomers discover cosmic double whammy

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:23 AM PST

Astronomers have discovered a cosmic one-two punch never seen before. By combining data from some of the best X-ray, optical and radio telescopes in the world, researchers have found out what happens when matter ejected by a giant black hole is swept up in the merger of two enormous galaxy clusters.

Autoimmunity and infections: When the body fights itself

Posted: 06 Jan 2017 06:23 AM PST

Doctors are on the trail of a possible connection between autoimmune diseases and infections: errors can occur when immune cells absorb certain proteins from pathogen cells.

Study examines ocean acidification effects on rockfish, a key California marine prey base

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:33 PM PST

A new study examines how ocean acidification may negatively affect some juvenile rockfish, a key marine prey base to the Calif. ecosystem.

Preventing mortality after myocardial infarction

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

A new study is aiming to determine the optimal amount of blood to transfuse in anemic patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction.

Employers need to do more to encourage staff to switch off at home

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

Less than half of UK businesses and organizations provide employees with guidance on how to switch off from work when they go home.

Toxic bosses are bad for your health and bad for your reputation

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

People who work for bosses who display psychopathic and narcissistic traits not only feel more depressed due to their bosses bullying behavior. They are also more likely to engage in undesirable behaviors at work.

Gastric bypass helps severely obese teenagers maintain weight loss over long term

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:31 PM PST

Surgery leads to significant weight loss and health benefits over 5-12 years, but may lead to more surgery and vitamin deficiency in some, new research suggests.

Consumption of grilled meat linked to higher mortality risk among breast cancer survivors

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:28 PM PST

Findings published in JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute indicate that higher consumption of grilled, barbecued, and smoked meat may increase the mortality risk among breast cancer survivors.

Older lung cancer patients face significant treatment burden

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 06:28 PM PST

Depending on the type of treatment older lung cancer patients receive, they can spend an average of one in three days interacting with the healthcare system in the first 60 days after surgery or radiation therapy, according to a new study.

New surgical mask doesn't just trap viruses, it renders them harmless

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 01:02 PM PST

The surgical masks people wear to stop the spread of diseases don't work well -- that isn't what they're designed for. Pathogens like influenza are transmitted in aerosol droplets when we cough or sneeze. Masks trap the droplets but the virus remains infectious. Scientists took on the challenge of improving the masks, using salt to turn them into virus killers.

Measuring trees with the speed of sound

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 01:02 PM PST

Foresters and researchers are using sound to look inside living trees. A new study presents methods for use of sonic tomography, which measures wood decay by sending sound waves through tree trunks. The new study describes optimum placement of the sensors to avoid aberrant tomography results for the non-model tree shapes that populate the tropics and details how to analyze the tomograms to quantify areas of decayed and damaged wood.

Worker-owned cooperatives may help address elder care deficit

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:44 AM PST

A growing elder care shortage could be eased by worker-owned cooperatives, a little-used business model that also improves the working conditions and the quality of life for caregivers.

Reducing recurrence of heart attacks, death in patients with cardiovascular disease

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:43 AM PST

A new test can identify patients with a history of cardiovascular disease who are at high risk of another heart attack or death and would benefit from treatment with the drug vorapaxar.

Novel tests improve treatment for heart failure patients

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:43 AM PST

For the first time, researchers have developed tests that could improve treatment for heart failure patients by diagnosing the condition with greater accuracy, as well as by detecting the onset of congestive heart failure earlier.

Lung-specific Ebola infection found in recovering patient

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:35 AM PST

Scientists have found potential evidence of Ebola virus replication in the lungs of a person recovering from infection, according to new research. The findings could aid research into new treatment approaches and better understanding of how the virus is transmitted.

Medical screening and fly control could rapidly reduce sleeping sickness in key locations

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:35 AM PST

In 2012, the World Health Organization set public health goals for reducing Gambian sleeping sickness, a parasitic infection. Now, by mathematically modeling the impact of different intervention strategies, researchers report have described how two-pronged approaches, integrating medical intervention and vector control, could substantially speed up the elimination of sleeping sickness in high burden areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Scaling up marine conservation targets should benefit millions of people

Posted: 05 Jan 2017 11:35 AM PST

About 200 countries worldwide committed to protecting 10 percent of national marine areas by signing the Convention on Biological Diversity. But more ambitious marine reserve coverage policies that target unprotected fishing grounds would benefit millions of people who depend on fisheries for food and livelihoods.